Assess the Importance of Party Government in Leading to the Rise
Party government Bring disappointment to the people –Failure to educate the public about democracy to help consolidate the democratic ( People lost confidence in democracy and turned to support the political ideas advocated by extreme nationalists. It looked like democracy was not eh suitable choice of government to Japan, put hope on military, give military an opportunity to restore authoritarian rule. –Fail to protect the rights of its own country, brought humiliation to people (e. g.
Paris Peace Conference: western powers rejected Japan’s demand for racial equality to be included in the Covenant of the League of Nations Washington Conference: Japan was forced to return Shangdong to China, Japan had to accept a lower tonnage of capital ships to the US and Britain. –Corrupt and unreliable politicians ( Different parties concerned with how to gain power for themselves rather than solve the problems of the country and the people –e. g. – close connection with the zaibatsu Minseito and Seiyukai –Fail to bring the military under control –Unstable government with frequent changes ( 1918-1932, six cabinets had been created. Frequent change of government made policy making difficult, so people criticized that the party government was not ruling the country efficiently and effectively. –fail to provide effective solutions to the economic crisis (1927 Banking Crisis Owing to credit crises, some bank collapsed (1929 The Great Depression Limited resources to satisfy the growing population + relied much on import of raw materials and foodstuff. In 1926, japan was already suffering from a domestic economic recession, followed by banking crisis 1927. This worsened the situation and further weakened the democratic party government -Foreign countries levied heavy custom duties on Japanese good. Because of the protectionism policy, by 1931, total exports had been reduced by 50%. This led to decrease in wages and unemployment reached 3 million. therefore, Japanese were convinced that military conquest is the only way to overcome difficulties for the economic development + support the growing population. –fail to solve the shortage of land and resources (Japanese population was growing fast in the 1920s, the problem of overpopulation and shortage of land and resources worsened the economic difficulties in 1920s and 1930s. However, the party government did nothing effective to solve the problem, so the Japanese believed that the only way to solve it was through military conquest and territorial expansion.
Political –The rise of totalitarianism in Italy and Germany (1930s) set an example for Japan to follow. ( the rise of totalitarianism in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany made the people think that dictatorship rather than democracy was more effective to solve economic problem Culture –the promotion of extreme nationalist ideas promoted militarism and territorial expansion (rise of extreme nationalist ideas -e. g. Kita Ikki wrote an outline plan for the reconstruction of japan in 1919 which advocated the idea of military dictatorship and expansionism -e. . the prime minister Tanka Giichi suggested Japan’s conquest of Asia by steps: first conquer Northeast China, then the rest of China, and finally Southeast Asia. (Setting up of extremist societies -to promote extreme nationalism and expansion -e. g. Black Dragon Society called for the invasion of China Military Japan Had a strong military tradition ( Long history of military tradition in Japan -the shogun could rule the country simply because he was militarily stronger than all other feudal lords means military strength was important and useful. Japanese warrior, samurai, were given a privileged position in feudal Japan. These men practiced Bushido which meant by Way of Warrior. They were the only people who were allowed to wear swords, a symbol of class and privilege at that time. They were highly respected highly respected in society as they protect the countries as warrior ( The continuation of the military tradition in the Meiji Constitution -they Meiji constitution gave the military a special position by allowing the Army and Navy Chiefs to report to the emperor directly.
Their importance was recognized by the constitution. ( The adoption of ‘Bushido’ among the soldiers -all adult male were to serve in the army, and they were indoctrinated with Bushido thoughts, encouraging absolute loyalty to the stage. (The contributions from the military in Japan’s quest for equality -Japan’s victories in foreign wars helped Japan claim equality and raised the status of the military and strengthened militarism in Japan. Japanese believe that an expansionist policy was beneficial to Japan.