Exam 3 Practice Test #2

Acne vulgaris involves inflammation of the:
a. Hair follicles
b. Sebaceous follicles
c. Eccrine glands
d. Apocrine glands
A 4-month-old female is diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD). Which of the following assessment findings by the nurse will most likely support this diagnosis?
a. Blistering
b. Moist reddened skin
c. Dry, itchy skin
d. White patches
A 50-year-old male is experiencing reflux of chyme from the stomach. He is diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux. This condition is caused by:
a. Fibrosis of the lower third of the esophagus
b. Sympathetic nerve stimulation
c. Loss of muscle tone at the lower esophageal sphincter
d. Reverse peristalsis of the stomach
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A 45-year-old male complains of heartburn after eating and difficulty swallowing. He probably has:
a. Pyloric stenosis
b. Gastric cancer
c. Achalasia
d. Hiatal hernia
A 38-year-old female complains of epigastric fullness following a meal, nausea, and epigastric pain. Tests reveal narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum. This condition is referred to as:
a. Ileocecal obstruction
b. Hiatal hernia
c. Pyloric obstruction
d. Hiatal obstruction
The cardinal sign of pyloric stenosis caused by ulceration or tumors is:
a. Constipation
b. Diarrhea
c. Vomiting
d. Heartburn
A 42-year-old female presents with abdominal discomfort, epigastric tenderness, and bleeding. Gastroscopy reveals degeneration of the gastric mucosa in the body and fundus of the stomach. Which of the following would most likely follow?
a. Pernicious anemia
b. Osmotic diarrhea
c. Increased acid secretion
d. Decreased gastrin secretion
A 54-year-old male is diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. This condition is most likely caused by:
a. Hereditary hormonal imbalances with high gastrin levels
b. Breaks in the mucosa and presence of corrosive secretions
c. Decreased vagal activity and vascular engorgement
d. Gastric erosions related to high ammonia levels and bile reflux
A 50-year-old male complains of frequently recurring abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools. A possible diagnosis would be:
a. Ulcerative colitis
b. Hiatal hernia
c. Pyloric obstruction
d. Achalasia
Which of the following symptoms would help a health care provider distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease?
a. Abdominal pain
b. Pattern of remission/exacerbations
c. Diarrhea
d. Malabsorption
A 54-year-old male complains that he has been vomiting blood. Tests reveal portal hypertension. Which of the following is the most likely cause of his condition?
a. Thrombosis in the spleen
b. Cirrhosis of the liver
c. Left ventricular failure
d. Renal stenosis
A 16-year-old female presents with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. Physical examination reveals rebound tenderness and a low-grade fever. A possible diagnosis would be:
a. Colon cancer
b. Pancreatitis
c. Appendicitis
d. Hepatitis
A 40-year-old male presents with epigastric pain. Tests reveal acute pancreatitis. The most likely cause of his condition is:
a. Pancreatic duct obstruction by a malignant tumor
b. Surgical trauma to the pancreas
c. Obstruction of the biliary tract by a gallstone
d. Toxic injury to the pancreas from nonprescription medications
Tissue damage in pancreatitis is caused by:
a. Insulin toxicity
b. Autoimmune destruction of the pancreas
c. Leakage of pancreatic enzymes
d. Hydrochloric acid reflux into the pancreatic duct
A 39-year-old female presents with abdominal pain and jaundice. She is diagnosed with gallstones and undergoes cholecystectomy. An analysis of her gallstones would most likely reveal a high concentration of:
a. Phosphate
b. Bilirubin
c. Urate
d. Cholesterol
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder wall usually caused by:
a. Accumulation of bile in the hepatic duct
b. Obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone
c. Accumulation of fat in the wall of the gallbladder
d. Viral infection of the gallbladder
A 39-year-old male suffers a severe brain injury when he falls off a building while working. CT scan reveals that he has a basilar skull fracture. Based upon his injuries, what major complication should the nurse observe for in this patient?
a. Hematoma formation
b. Meningeal infection
c. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP)
d. Cognitive deficits
An initial assessment finding associated with acute spinal cord injury is _____ the injury.
a. Pain below the level of
b. Loss of autonomic reflexes above
c. Loss of voluntary control below
d. Hyperactive spinal reflexes below
A 20-year-old male is brought to the emergency room (ER) for treatment of injuries received in a motor vehicle accident. A spinal cord injury is suspected. What two regions should the nurse assess as they are most likely to be damaged?
a. Cervical and thoracic regions
b. Thoracic and lumbar regions
c. Lumbar and sacral regions
d. Cervical and lumbar regions
A 33-year-old male is brought to the ER for treatment of injuries received in a motor vehicle accident. An MRI reveals an injury of the cervical cord. Cord swelling in this region may be life threatening because:
a. Increased ICP may occur.
b. Reflexes will be disrupted.
c. Diaphragm function may be impaired.
d.Bladder emptying will not occur.
A 30-year-old white male recently suffered a cerebrovascular accident. Which of the following is the most likely factor that contributed to his stroke?
a. Age
b. Gender
c. Diabetes
d. Race
Which of the following would increase a patient’s risk for thrombotic stroke?
a. Hyperthyroidism
b. Hypertension
c. Anemia
d. Dehydration
Of the following groups, who are at highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?
a. Blacks over 65 years of age
b. Whites over 65 years of age
c. Blacks under 65 years of age
d. Whites under 65 years of age
A 23-year-old female begins having problems with tiredness, weakness, and visual changes. Her diagnosis is multiple sclerosis (MS). What is occurring in the patient’s body?
a. Depletion of dopamine in the central nervous system (CNS)
b. Demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS
c. The development of neurofibril webs in the CNS
d. Reduced amounts of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction
A patient is admitted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Which classic assessment findings will support the diagnosis of ALS?
a. Progressive dementia
b. Muscle weakness and atrophy
c. Severe paresthesias
d. Autonomic dysfunctions
A 72-year-old male demonstrates left-sided weakness of upper and lower extremities. The symptoms lasted 4 hours and resolved with no evidence of infarction. The patient most likely experienced a(n):
a. Stroke in evolution
b. Arteriovenous malformation
c. Transient ischemic attack
d. Cerebral hemorrhage
A 60-year-old female with a recent history of head trauma and a long-term history of hypertension presents to the ER for changes in mental status. MRI reveals that she had a hemorrhagic stroke. What does the nurse suspect caused this type of stroke?
a. Rheumatic heart disease
b. Thrombi
c. Aneurysm
d. Hypotension

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