Exercise on group behavior 1. Based on knowledge from your company group relate to and explain the 5-stage group development model and the punctuated equilibrium model (both very important for exam. Group analysis based on 5-stage model: * Forming. Firs task was to find out people with the same level of motivation, expectations and similar point of view through the vision of business idea. After finally forming the company group another task was to find out the purpose of the project and understood why this experience could be useful for us (It took almost all day).
Furthermore we had to take decisions about how group is going to look like and what tasks we have to do personally: we find out which persons are going to be leaders who are generating the idea and who are going to work with developing and presenting it. * Storming. Secondly we as a very fresh and inexperienced group had to come up with real and innovative business plan. It was the hardest part of all because we didn’t knew each other very good. We had many conflicts about different ideas while finally after many disagreements we find out the best decision of our idea. * Norming.
During the working time our relationships grown up significantly. It became much easier to work with each other. We began to understand each other easily and that let us to improve our productivity skills in team work.. * Performing. With better relationships to each other our performing improved as well. Everybody knew what they had to do and was not afraid to consulate to other group members. We began to work very fast and effective. * Adjourning. Finally we easily wrote one page report and we are waiting for new activities. Group analysis based on punctuated equilibrium model:
Our group development can be good example of punctuated equilibrium model. First day of our work was very efficient. We formed our group, created first business idea and tried to develop and analyzed it. However after a while working with lost things idea we come up with the decision that we are not able to develop and use it. Then it was period of trying to find new ideas. We had about 10 different solutions however we didn’t stick to none of them until the last day when we had to send one page report. Last minutes work helped us to create and generate good idea and present it to others. Based on knowledge on group development why do you think group work often starts with teambuilding activities like wild-life experiences, bowling, outdoor exercises etc.? In group development is very important feeling and atmosphere through the members. Good relationships and knowing each other are the main keys to productive and efficient work. Teambuilding activities give ability to understand the way how other people are thinking, how active they are. Furthermore, people always feel much comfortable and relaxed in the known environment.
As for my experience in teambuilding trip i can strongly agree that it was the best way to quickly get in the new team. 3. Explain how role conflicts might arise from role perceptions differing from role expectations (try to give a real life example that you have experienced). Personal example: In high school our student council (I was fresh member there) were organizing big event. Leading group announced that everybody can join them and take an active part in developing it. I with other “freshers” had many interesting thoughts and expectations however how come up in the end we were ably only to participate in cleaning after the party.
As a result we felt exploited and misunderstood what caused big conflict between leading and new members. 4. Explain how conformity and status of group members effects team work . Conformity and status are very important part in group development. People are used to behave by first impression. Members who have more experience, are more talented or more self-confident (have higher status than other) are used to be treated as a leaders or be more respected from the first minute. It can have both positive and negative effects through the group. It is important that despite status everybody would have equal right to speak and realize themselves.
Furthermore, People often conform from a desire for security within a group—typically a group of a similar age, culture, religion, or educational status. It can prevent people from new ideas and innovation. 5. Explain why group cohesiveness can be both positive and negative for team performance Positive performance| Negative performance| * Individuals are proud to be in the group and see group membership important. As a result they look seriously to the tasks, output and achievements of the group. * Members of cohesive groups deal with conflict openly and constructively. They develop and share values and team loyality. Cohesive groups increase job satisfaction and reduce stress. * When working toward a common goal group members can fill in for each others’ lack of knowledge or shortage of skill. | * Teams members have tendency to adopt similar behaviors that became group norm what can couse lowered productivity or lack of creativity and innovation * Group-think. It happens when individual group members lose the ability to think for themselves and rely on the group to make their decisions. * cohesive groups find it difficult to change their values, actions or behaviors, particularly when the change is driven by external forces. Opinions held by the majority or by key group members are regarded as unanimous and alternative views are discouraged| 6. Answer the questions in the “Ethical Dilemma” page 255 1) If group members end up ‘working around’ shirkers, do you think this information should be communicated to the instructor so that individual’s contribution to the project is judged more fairly? If so, does the group have an ethical responsibility to communicate this to the shirking group member? If not, isn’t the shirking group member unfairly reaping the rewards of a “free ride’’? Personally I believe that decision have to be made based on situation.
I think that first of all group has to try to identify the problem why the member is not working. Maybe he/she has personal problems and can’t concentrate or he/she is not experienced enough that could face the task by himself. Furthermore, is very important to try to speak with the member and say your dissatisfaction directly instead of just throwing him out. If it doesn’t work then group must to communicate with instructor. 2) Do you think confronting the shrinking group member is justified? Does this depend on the skills of shirker (weather he is capable of doing good-quality work)?
I believe that everything depends on situation and the task what members have to do. If person is able to do that but just is trying to avoid the work than it is justified. 3) Social loafing has been found to be higher in Western, more individual nations, that other countries. Do you think this means we should tolerate shirking in these countries to a greater degree than if it occurred with someone from more collectivistic nation? I think that social and cultural background has great influence to human character. This is the reason that group members have to be tolerant with each other and try to find the best working method. . Make case incident 2 page 256 1) What are some factors that led to groupthink in the cases described here? What can teams do to attempt to prevent groupthink from occurring? People have tendency not to make quick and efficient decisions. They are trying to avoid conflicts in the team and are not making changes related with a work. They tend to strict to more traditional and safe decisions. I think that leader have to promote people to represent different ideas and not to be afraid of using different ways. 2) How might differences in status among group members contribute to groupthink?
For example, how might lover-status members react to group’s decisions? Are lower-status members more or less likely to be dissenters? Why might higher-status group members be more effective dissenters? Status has very big impact through group members. Individuals with lower-status are tend to keep quietly and not make decisions. They pretend that situation is appropriate for them and company. Higher-status group members are mostly more active and innovative. 3) Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer says that he encourages dissent. Can such norms guard against the occurrence of groupthink?
As a manager, how would you try to cultivate norms that prevent groupthink? I personally believe that encouraging dissent is one of the best ways against the occurrence of groupthink. It stimulates people to think and come up with new ideas or improve the old ones. I would choose the same way. 4) How might group characteristics such as size and cohesiveness affect groupthink? If group is very big and cohesive then it has big risk to be unsuccessful. People are not used to say their opinion or take action. I believe that smaller groups are working more efficient because they get more responsibilities.