experi psych 6

experi psych 6

**1. Which of the following cannot be found in a one-group, pretest/posttest design? FOUND or NOT FOUND
A random sample
A valid measure
A comparison group
A manipulation
A comparison group
2. The addition of a comparison group can address each of the following threats to internal validity TRUE OR FALSE:
History
Maturation
Regression
Attrition
History
Maturation
Regression
**3. To be a history threat, the external event must occur: TRUE OR FALSE

Constantly during the experiment

At the beginning of the experiment

Systematically, affecting most members of the group

Intentionally, affecting most members of the group

Because of a participant’s behavior

Systematically, affecting most members of the group
**4. Regression is especially problematic in which of the following situations? TRUE OR FALSE

When one group has an extremely low score at pretest

When one group has an extremely high score at pretest

When the experimental and comparison groups are equal at pretest

When one group has an extremely low score at pretest

When one group has an extremely high score at pretest

5. Which of the following is true of testing effects? TRUE OR FALSE

It is an example of an order effect.
It can lead to increased/higher scores.
It can lead to decreased/lower scores.
It can sensitize people to being tested.

It is an example of an order effect.
It can lead to increased/higher scores.
It can lead to decreased/lower scores.
It can sensitize people to being tested.
6. Which of the following is true of instrumentation threats? TRUE OR FALSE

They are the same as testing threats.

They occur only when using mechanical instruments (e.g., blood pressure cuffs, scales) .

They can be avoided with one-group, pretest/posttest designs.

They are only problematic in observational research.

They occur only when using mechanical instruments (e.g., blood pressure cuffs, scales) .
7. In previous studies, Dr. Schulenberg has established that finding meaning in one’s everyday work activities can lead to greater success in the workplace (e.g., productivity, creativity). He is curious as to whether this can happen in the college classroom. Specifically, he is curious whether finding meaning in one’s classroom experience can lead to greater academic performance.

In the spring semester, he has his teaching assistant randomly assign half the class to write a paragraph each class period about how the material has meaning for their lives (meaning group). The other half writes a paragraph about what they did to prepare for class (preparation group).

He does not know which of his students are writing which paragraph, and the students are not aware they are different writing assignments.

To measure academic performance, he gives the students a midterm essay exam and a final exam.

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QUESTION
The study described above is an example of which of the following? TRUE OR FALSE
A one-group, pretest/posttest design
A null effect
A double-blind study
Observer bias

A double-blind study
**8.”
————-
QUESTION
Dr. Schulenberg likely designed his study so that neither he nor his students knew which group they were in to address which of the following? TRUE or FALSE

Placebo effects
Attrition
Demand characteristics
Maturation

Demand characteristics
9. ”
————-
QUESTION
Which of the following aspects of Dr. Schulenberg’s study allows him to prevent observer bias? TRUE OR FALSE

Keeping his students unaware of which type of essay they are writing

Having his teaching assistant assign students randomly to the two groups

Grading the exams himself (a Ph.D.) instead of having his teaching assistant (a college senior) do it

Having the person grading the exams unaware of each student’s writing group

Using the grades from the midterm exam rather than the final exam

Having the person grading the exams unaware of each student’s writing group
**10. ”
————-
QUESTION
Imagine that in Dr. Schulenberg’s study, he notes that all of the students do extremely well on the midterm exam. When he looks at the results of the final exam, he notices that all the students’ exam scores went down. Given this information, which of the following threats might be present in his study? TRUE OR FALSE

Regression
Attrition
Maturation
Observer bias
Placebo effect

Regression
**11. Dr. Bloedorn is a health psychologist who researches nutrition. She is curious as to whether a new drink additive will help people consume fewer calories during a meal. The drink additive is a white} odorless} tasteless powder that a person can add to any drink. She collects a random sample of 63 overweight students on campus and measures the calories they eat during lunch, using a bomb calorimeter. She then gives this additive to the same 63 participants to use at dinner and measures how many calories they eat (again) using the bomb calorimeter).

—————
QUESTION
Which of the following threats to internal validity will Dr. Bloedorn be worried about? TRUE OR FALSE

History
Attrition
Instrumentation
Placebo effects

Placebo effects
12. ”

—————
QUESTION
The addition of a control group that does not use the drink additive would help Dr. Bloedorn address which of the following threats to internal validity? TRUE OR FALSE

History
Demand characteristics
Instrumentation
Placebo effects

Demand characteristics maybe
13. ”

—————
QUESTION
The addition of a group that does not use the drink additive but adds a similar-looking substance that they think is the additive, would help Dr. Bloedorn address which of the following threats to internal validity? TRUE OR FALSE

History
Observer bias
Instrumentation
Placebo effects

Placebo effects
14. ”
—————
QUESTION
Imagine that Dr. Bloedorn finds no difference between the calories consumed with the drink additive and without. This is known as: TRUE OR FALSE

Situation noise
Within-group variance
A null effect
Placebo effect

A null effect
15. THIS QUESTION DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ABOVE STUDY DESCRIPTION
Which of the following study types can result in a null effect? TRUE OR FALSE

Pretest/posttest designs
Correlational designs
Within-groups designs
Posttest-only designs

all maybe? not sure
16. THIS QUESTION DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ABOVE STUDY DESCRIPTION
Dr. Deveraux has conducted a study that has resulted in a null effect. Nonetheless, she suspects that there truly is a causal relationship between her independent and dependent variables. Which of the following might be to blame? TRUE OR FALSE

A weak manipulation
An insensitive measure
A reverse confound
None of the above are reasons

A weak manipulation
An insensitive measure
A reverse confound
**17. Dr. Morimoto is curious as to whether exposing people to violent video games causes them to be more aggressive. He assigns half his participants to play a video game for 5 minutes and the other half to play for 7 minutes. He finds that there is no relationship between playing the game longer and being more aggressive. What is likely to blame for this null effect? TRUE OR FALSE

A weak manipulation
An insensitive measure
A reverse confound
Too much within-group variance
Ceiling effect

A weak manipulation
18. Dr. Sanderson is curious as to whether exposing people to violent video games causes them to be more aggressive. She assigns half her participants to play a violent video game for 5 minutes and the other half to play the same game for 25 minutes. Afterward, she has them play a board game and has a well-trained coder determine whether they are Very Aggressive in their playing style, Barely Aggressive, or Not At All Aggressive. She finds that a vast majority of her participants, regardless of group assignment, are rated as Very Aggressive. This outcome would be known as a/an: TRUE or FALSE

Weak manipulation
Ceiling effect
Floor effect
Outlier
Large within-group variance

Ceiling effect
**19. THIS QUESTION DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ABOVE STUDY DESCRIPTION
A confound that keeps a researcher from finding a relationship between two variables is known as: TRUE OR FALSE

Weak confound
Insensitive confound
Null confound
Reverse confound

Reverse confound
20. THIS QUESTION DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ABOVE STUDY DESCRIPTION
Unsystematic variability in a study is also known as: TRUE OR FALSE

Error variance
Noise
Group inconsistency

Noise
**21. THIS QUESTION DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ABOVE STUDY DESCRIPTION
In what way does high within-groups variance obscure between-groups variance? TRUE OR FALSE

It leads to smaller effect sizes.

It limits the type of statistical analyses that can be conducted.

It causes more overlap between experimental/comparison groups.

It leads to smaller effect sizes.

It causes more overlap between experimental/comparison groups.

**22. THIS QUESTION DOES NOT RELATE TO THE ABOVE STUDY DESCRIPTION
Which of the following things can be done to reduce the effect of individual differences? TRUE or FALSE

Using a matched-groups design
Using a within-groups design
Collecting measurements from more people

Nothing can be done to reduce the effect of individual differences

Using a matched-groups design
Using a within-groups design
Collecting measurements from more people
Observer bias threatens internal validity because an alternative explanation exists and threatens construct validity because the ratings are inaccurat
-threatens internal validity
because an alternative explanation exists
and
-threatens construct validity
because the ratings are inaccurat