Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents concepts and studies that expounded the variables under the study. Conceptual Literature To become a registered nurse, graduates of Bachelor of Science in Nursing course must take their final test that’ll assess their knowledge, skills and competency to work in the profession. This test is called Nursing Licensure Examination (NLE). In Philippines NLE is a 500-item multiple choice exam to test basic nursing level competency which considers the objectives of the nursing curriculum, the broad areas of nursing and other related disciplines and competencies.
NLE is held every June and December annually in various public schools throughout the Philippines. Takers are assigned in different schools and rooms to provide quality control and avoid overcrowding. Room assignment for the exams are posted outside the Professional Regulation Commission building at least three days before the exam. NLE results are released after 30 working days though it may vary depending on the number of takers and other factors. However, not all takers are fortunate enough to pass the exams and never have been any occurrence of 100% national passing rate throughout NLE’s history.
Non passers may review and retake but some are faced with dilemmas that’ll make it even harder for them to cope up and pass the next time around. A total of 16,908 out of 49,066 passed the Nurse Licensure Examination given by the Board of Nursing last December 2012 which was held in 16 areas around the country. The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) is closely monitoring schools that offer BSN course to enforce the standards and for them to provide quality education to their students. Nursing schools are given three years to improve their passing rate.
However if these aren’t met the schools may face possible closure of their nursing program. The quality of education the school provides is only one of the various issues that affect the success of takers. There are also other factors that depend largely on the students own capabilities. Others may come from low performing schools in relation to passing rates yet achieve a high score in the exams. Many studies have analyzed the factors behind the performance of students. Earlier studies have been carried out which focused on cognitive factors as predictors of academic success.
Recently, there has been a growing interest on the non-cognitive factors. A number of researchers have examined the role of non-cognitive variables such as study skills (Fazal, S. et. al, 2012; Awang, G & Sinnadurai, S. K. , 2011; Demir et. al, 2012; Hassanbeigi et. al, 2011), study motivation (Tella, A. , 2007; Nonis and Hudson, 2008), study behavior (Yang Yang, 2011; Otto, 1978), study habits on academic achievement. Some argued that these factors have strong relationship with academic performance of students, while others concluded that it was the combination of the different factors that could explain students’ academic performance.
In addition to that, Crede and Kuncel (2008) found that non-cognitive factors like study habit, skill and study motivation, among other attitudinal constructs, accounted for incremental variance in academic performance beyond standardized tests and previous grades. Moreover, a literature review by Nagaraju (2004) pointed out that for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important. Study habit is the pattern of behavior adopted by students in the pursuit of their studies that serves as the vehicle of learning.
It is the degree to which the student engages in regular acts of studying that are characterized by appropriate studying routines (e. g. reviews of material, frequency of studying sessions, etc. ) occurring in an environment that is conducive to studying. Study attitudes, on the other hand, refers to a student’s positive attitude toward the specific act of studying and the student’s acceptance and approval of the broader goals of college education (Crede and Kuncel, 2008). In short, study habits and attitudes of students are determined through their time management ability, work methods, attitudes toward teachers and acceptance of education.
Many problems encountered by the students are inter-related and should be regarded in a comprehensive manner. However the way they see their problem would be a lot different on how it is seen by others. So in the end, the probability of success depends on the student’s habits and activity during their 4 year education. Schools are not the only ones to be blamed for the students’ failures. This study aims to depict these factors affecting their failures in their point of view to allow us to fully understand them.