Final Project of Fin619

[pic] Pass Dear Student you are declared PASS in your written work. Start preparing for presentation & viva voce and improve your work according to the given instructions and guidelines available at VULMS of your course under the icon DOWNLOADS after clicking COURSE WEBSITE at VULMS. Also read lesson # 7 of this course in this for effective preparation of your presentation slides. For any course related query and information, you can contact us via MDB, Email ([email protected] edu. pk) and telephone (92 (42) 111 880 880 (Extension: 8851 or 3941). RATIO ANALYSIS OF

ASKARI BANK, UNITED BANK AND BANK ALFALAH FOR THE YEARS 2009, 2010, 2011 A PROPOSAL FOR REPORT TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA-Exec) Submitted By: AAMIR SHAHZAD MC100403644 MBA-Exec (Finance) SUBMISSION DATE: 02-02-2013 Virtual University of Pakistan Letter of Undertaking Job confirmation letter [pic] Dedication I would like to dedicate this project to My parents My Wife & My Kids Ashar Ali & Mubashar Ali Acknowledgement

All my efforts for my MBA and this Project would have been nothing with out the help and grace of Almighty Allah and I am always Gratified to Blessings of Allah. More than anybody else, I would like to acknowledge my uncle Mr. Ashfaq Ali Tabassam for his never ending support. He always guided me whenever I felt stuck off and his encouragement always worked as moral booster for me. I would like to extend my special thanks to my friend Mr. Aamir who advised me time to time and provided me technical assistance. I am highly indebted to my boss in my organization Mr.

Muzaffar Ali who spared me and gave me ample time, out of my professional commitments, to go all out for my MBA from Virtual University of Pakistan. Executive Summary The purpose of this report titled “RATIO ANALYSIS OF ASKARI BANK, UNITED BANK AND BANK ALFALAH FOR THE YEARS 2009, 2010, 2011”is to investigate the financial performance of these banks during the mentioned period. The first chapter of this report deals with introduction of project and banks under study, financial period under consideration, objectives and significance of the project. The second part is about data processing and analysis.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Final Project of Fin619
or any similar topic only for you
We will write a custom essay sample on
Final Project of Fin619
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Order now

The fourth chapter is about calculation of different ratios its comparison and interpretation. In last chapter conclusions and recommendations have been given. The data for the study is collected from financial repots of the banks which are available on theirs respective websites. The financial reports included the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statements. As regards to finding of study, the Net Profit Margin ratio of Askari and bank Alfalah is low as compare to UBL. UBL is also on top in gross spread ratio, return on equity, debt ratio and Advance/Deposit ratio.

While Askari Bank has better cash flow ratio and Price/Earning ratio. It is recommended for Bank Alfalah and Askari bank to cut down their non markup expenses to improve their Net Profit Margin Ratio while, on the other hand their turnover is satisfactory. UBL and Alfalah should decrease their current liabilities and ensure the availability of more liquidity to meet short term debts. Askari bank and bank Alfalah both banks need to adopt measures to cut down their interest expenses in order to increase their gross spread ratio.

In order to increase non interest income Askari and Alfalah needs to increase their earnings through fees, commissions and other advisory charges etc. In Advance/Deposit ratio Askari bank and Alfalah should have to utilize their deposits in more projects either through corporate financing or general public financing. Table of Contents Section I Chapter 1………………………………………………………………8 • 1. 1 Introduction of the project • 1. 2 Banks Introduction • 1. 4 Period Under Consideration • 1. 5 Objectives • 1. 6 Significance Chapter 2…………………………………………………………. ……11 • 2. 1 Data Collection 2. 2 Data Processing and Analysis Chapter 3………………………………………………………………. 12 • 3. 1 Net Profit Margin • 3. 2 Operating cash flow ratio • 3. 3 Gross Spread ratio • 3. 4 Non-interest income to total income ratio • 3. 5 Spread ratio • 3. 6 Advances/deposit ratio • 3. 7 Return on total equity (ROE) • 3. 8 Debt ratio • 3. 9 Debt/Equity ratio • 3. 10 Price/Earning ratio Chapter 4………………. ………………………………………………. 26 • 4. 1 Conclusions • 4. 2 Recommendations Section I • a) Student Introduction …………………………………………29 • b) Bibliography …………………………………………………30 Section I

Chapter 1 1. Project Introduction The financial ratio analysis techniques referred to in this aid could be useful to analyze any company financial performance. This study is also going to investigate the financial performance of three mentioned banks e. g. Askari bank, united bank and Bank Alfalah. These banks are surveying in the Pakistani Market and are competitors each other. Hence this study is going to find out which bank has strong financial position over other two banks. With the help of financial ratio analysis we can analyze the financial position of any company.

Many stakeholders, investors, creditors may analyze any company, firms financial position with the help of ratio analysis before taking any important decision regarding to investments or any other. Therefore financial ratio is a mathematical correlation among several numbers often stated in the form of percentage, times, or days. 1. 2 Banks Introduction Askari Bank was incorporated in Pakistan on October 9, 1991, as a public limited company. It commenced operation on April 1, 1992, and is principally engaged in the business of banking, as defined in the Banking Companies Ordinance, 1962.

The Bank is listed on Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad Stock Exchanges. Since inception, the bank has concentrated on growth through improving service quality, investment in technology and people, utilizing its extensive branch network which includes Islamic and Agricultural banking. United Bank Limited (UBL) was incorporated in Pakistan on November 7th 1959. In 1963 the bank opened its first overseas branch in London, United Kingdom. In 1971 the UBL was nationalized by the Government. In 2002, the Government of Pakistan sold it in an open auction to a consortium of Abu Dhabi Group and Bestway.

Currently UBL is one of the largest commercial banks in Pakistan having more than 1,220 online branches inside the country. Its 15 branches outside the country are in the United States of America, Qatar, UAE, Bahrain, and Republic of Yemen. It also has representative offices in Tehran (Iran), and Almaty (Kazakhstan). It owns subsidiaries in the UK (United National Bank Limited), and in Zurich (Switzerland). Bank Alfalah Limited was incorporated on June 21st, 1992 as a public limited company under the Companies Ordinance 1984. Its banking operations commenced from 1st Nov, 1997.

The Bank is currently operating through various branches in Pakistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh & Afghanistan, with the registered office at B. A. Building, I. I. Chundrigar, Karachi. Strengthened with the banking of the Abu Dhabi Group and driven by the strategic goals set out by its board of management, the Bank has invested in revolutionary technology to have an extensive range of products and services. During the past five years, Bank Alfalah has emerged as one of the foremost financial institution in the region endeavoring to meet the needs of tomorrow today. 3. Financial Period Under-Consideration for Analysis:

Financial period under consideration for analysis (2009, 2010, 2011) 4. Objectives 1. To analyze the selected banks efficiency in managing their resource for generating profit 2. To composition of capital structure of the selected banks, how much of the bank’s assets are financed through external and internal debt. 3. To find out that how effectively selected banks are maximizing their profit by controlling their interest expenses. 4. To compare the selected banks interest income with their interest expenses. 5. Are banks able to pay the current liabilities from their cash equivalents? . Significance The significance of these projects may include the following 1. The finding of this research will be more beneficial for investors, creditors, to take good decision after seeing the result of ratio. They can easily analyze the bank position through this study result. Bank Management may also study the finding of this study to determine the success or failure of particular sales, marketing as well as financing strategies. 2. At the end of this research, we will be able to get which bank is more able to pay its current liabilities from their cash equivalents. 3.

The major outcomes of this research, this study will clear the concept regarding to financial ratio analysis in banking sector by applying different ratios. 4. This research may help the stakeholders to analyze financial ratios result before taking any serious decisions. 5. Financial mangers of selected banks also take advantages from this study to identify their bank strengths and weakness and will improve their poor areas. Chapter 2) Data Processing & Analysis 1. Data Collection Sources Study has used three banks annual reports/balance sheet, income statements, cash flow statements for data analysis and data processing.

In research only secondary would be used to access the objectives which are mentioned as above. The study has used secondary sources to access the objectives of this research. The sources of this research were three banks websites. Annual reports were collected from the websites 2. Data Processing and Analysis Tools: Data was processed, analyzed and all the entry has done on excel sheet. Hence Study has used Excel sheet for data analysis and for calculation purpose. Result has been displayed on MS world in tabulation form with interpretation. Chapter 3) Data Analysis Ratio Analysis 1 Net Profit Margin Significance

Net profit margin ratio explicit the profitability of the institution against the revenue. It will also define the performance of the company in its operations in the market. So, shareholders assess it carefully in order to take their economic decisions. FORMULA: Net profit margin= (Net profit/ Revenue) *100 |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |9,192,687/61,107,025*100 |11,159,930/59,331,761*100 |15,499,663/70,450,475*100 | | |15. 4% |18. 81% |22. 00% | |Askari Bank |1,097,507/22,586,736*100 |943,177/27,952,162*100 |1,627,698/32,766,351*100 | | |4. 86% |3. 37% |4. 97% | |Bank Alfalah |897035/35561312 *100= |968452/37530256*100= |3503130/44298178*100= | | |2. 2% |2. 58% |7. 91% | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |15. 04 |18. 81 |22. 00 | |Askari Bank |4. 86 |3. 37 |4. 97 | |Bank Alfalah |2. 2 |2. 58 |7. 91 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of above table and graph depicts that the Net Profit Margin of all the Three banks is increasing. UBL is on the top with 15. 04% earning in the period of 2009 and increasing in the respective years with 18. 81% in the year 2010 and 22% in 2011 which shows a positive trend which is due to the stringent control on operating expenses . While on the side, Askari bank Profit margin shows minor fluctuation with 4. 6% in the period 2009 then decreases in 2010 to 3. 37% owing to increase in non markup expenses and increases to 4. 49% in the year 2011. Profit margin of Bank Alfalah is also showing positive ness which is 2. 52% in 2009 and 2. 58% in the year 2010 and sore up to 7. 91% in 2011. 2 Operating Cash Flow Ratio Significance The ratio explains the cash flows of the bank or company which it earns by its operations and analyze it against it current liabilities to determine how well a company is in paying its debts which fall due in the financial year.

FORMULA: Operation Cash Flow Ratio= Net cash generated from operating activities/ Current Liabilities |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |23,099,432/262214540= |100,070,348/369628811= |108,571,682/407621100= | | |0. 09 times |0. 27 times |0. 7 times | |Askari Bank |36,245,071/49327164= |35,810,016/114583064= |36,491,839/14943963= | | |0. 73 Times |0. 31 times |2. 44 times | |Bank Alfalah |19945927/350833577= |18112043/184831395= |54274913/194917015= | | |0. 06 times |0. 0 time |0. 28 time | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |0. 09 |0. 27 |0. 27 | |Askari Bank |0. 73 |0. 31 |2. 44 | |Bank Alfalah |0. 06 |0. 0 |0. 28 | [pic] Working Current Liabilities of UBL 2009 2010 2011 • Bills payable (Short term) 5,147,259 5,045,815 5,879,043 • Borrowings (Short term) 35,018,765 44,187,313 45,534,286 • Deposits and other accounts (Short term) 209,685,205 319,797,360 340,999,875 • Liabilities against assets subject to finance Lease (Short term). – – – • Other liabilities (Short term) 12,363,311 369,628,811 407,621,100 • Total 262,214,540 369628811 407,621,100 Working Current Liabilities of Askari Bank 009 2010 2011 • Bills payable (Short term) 2,945,6703,089,9842,756,032 • Borrowings (Short term) 19,300,16325,554,7772,758,043 • Deposits and other accounts (Short term) 22,247,84228,646,7715,516,086 • Liabilities against assets subject to finance ease (Short term). – – – • Other liabilities (Short term) 4,833,48957,291,5323,913,802 • Total 49,327,16411458306414,943,963 Working Current Liabilities of Bank Alfalah 2009 2010 2011 Bills payable (Short term) 3,766,144 4,521,533 5,403,453 • Borrowings (Short term) 20,107,541 13,050,006 17,060,524 • Deposits and other accounts (Short term) 320,249,261 161,368,880 165,257,870 • Liabilities against assets subject to finance lease (Short term). 4,429 3,031 – • Other liabilities (Short term) 6,706,202 5,887,945 7,195,168 • Total 350,833,577184,831,395194,917,015

Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph show that Operating Cash Flow of UBL is 0. 09 times in the period 2009 and 0. 27 times in the periods 2010 and 2011 shows consistency in respective years. While the cash flow of Askari bank is 0. 73 times in 2009 and decreases to 0. 31 times due to decline in cash generated from operating activities and increases to 2. 44 times in the year 2011 due to the decline in short term liabilities and increase in cash generation. Cash flow of Bank Alfalah is 0. 6times in the year 2009 and 0. 10 times in 2010 and 0. 28 times in the period 2011 shows increasing trend. 3 Gross Spread Ratio Significance It is being calculated by dividing the difference of interest earned and expensed by interest expensed on the deposits of the public. It will help to measure the markup income of the bank in the reporting period. FORMULA: Gross Spread Ratio = (Mark-up / return / interest earned – Mark-up / return / interest expensed) / Mark-up / return / interest earned*100 Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |61,107,025- 28,163,787= |59,331,761- 24,997,188= |70,450,475 -31,025,869= | | |32,943,238/61,107,025= |34,334,573/59,331,761= |39,424,606/70,450,475= | | |53. 1% |57. 87% |55. 96% | |Askari Bank |22,586,736 – 13,554,078 = |27,952,162 – 17,936,616= |32,766,351- 22,699,583= | | |9,032,658/22,586,736 = |10,015,546/27,952,162= |10,066,768/32,766,351 = 30. 72 % | | |39. 99% |35. 3 % | | |Bank Alfalah |35561312 – 24654180 =10907132/35561312 =|37530256 – 23855448= |44298178 –25687485= | | |30. 67% |13674808/37530256 = |18610693/44298178 = | | | |36. 44% |42. 01% |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |53. 91 |57. 87 |55. 96 | |Askari Bank |39. 99 |35. 83 |30. 72 | |Bank Alfalah |30. 67 |36. 44 |42. 1 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graphical representation shows the Gross Spread Ratio of UBL 53. 91% in the period 2009 and increases to 57. 87% in the period 2010 and then decreases to 55. 96% in 2011 respectively, UBL is on the top in interest earning in the market. Askari bank ratio is 39. 99% in the period 2009, 35. 83% and 30. 72% in the periods 2010 and 2011. While Bank Alfalah ratio is increasing from 2009 to 2011 with 30. 67%, 36. 44% and 42. 01% which is better marginally then other banks.

But UBL is earning more as compare to other two banks due to better policy making and service. 4 Non-Interest Income to Total Income Ratio Significance It is other income which a bank earn from its services related to non markup sources such as advisory services and consultation provided in risk management etc. It describes the percentage of non interest income to total income of the bank or company. FORMULA: Non Mark-up / interest income to total income ratio= non mark-up / interest income / (non mark-up / interest income +Mark-up / return / interest earned)*100 Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |11,419,571/72526596= |10,090,162/69421923= |12,718,253/83168728= | | |15. 75% |14. 53% |15. 29% | |Askari Bank |2,544,415/25131151= |2,800,297/30752459= |2,902,921/35669272= | | |10. 2% |9. 11% |8. 14% | |Bank Alfalah |5182253/40743565 = |4708161/42238417= |5367713/49665891 = | | |12. 72 % |11. 15% |10. 81% | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |15. 5 |14. 53 |15. 29 | |Askari Bank |10. 12 |9. 11 |8. 14 | |Bank Alfalah |12. 72 |11. 15 |10. 81 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph shows the Non Interest income of all the three banks with the highest ratio of UBL which is 15. 75% in the period 2009 and 14. 3% in the period 2010 and in 2011 is 15. 29% in comparison with Askari bank and Bank Alfalah. Askari Bank earn 10. 12% in the period 2009 and 9. 11% and 8. 14% in 2010 and 2011 which is declining. While Bank Alfalah ratios are 12. 72%, 11. 15% and 10. 81% in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 is declining respectively. So, UBL shows better ratio as compare to the other banks in all the three years. The Results shows that UBL shows fluctuation while the other banks ratios show declining trend. Working of Total income of UBL Total Income= (Non mark-up / interest income +Mark-up / return / interest earned)   |Total Income |  |  | |Non Mark-up/interest income |11,419,571 |10,090,162 |12,718,253 | |Mark-up/return/interest earned |61,107,025 |59,331,761 |70,450,475 | |Total Income = |72526596 |69421923 |83168728 | Working of Total income of Askari Bank   |Total Income |  |  | |Non Mark-up/interest income |2,544,415 |2,800,297 |2,902,921 | |Mark-up/return/interest earned |22,586,736 |27,952,162 |32,766,351 | |Total Income |25131151 |30752459 |35669272 |

Working of Total Income of Bank Alfalah Total Income= (Non mark-up / interest income +Mark-up / return / interest earned) |  |Total Income |  |  | |Non Mark-up/interest income |5182253 |4708161 |5367713 |Mark-up/return/interest earned |35561312 |37530256 |44298178 | |Total Income |40743565 |42238417 |49665891 | Interpretation and comparison Interpretation is missing. 5 Spread Ratio Significance It is the ratio that describes the markup spread between income and expense. It helps to measure how much income bank earns by incurring markup cost.

Higher ratio shows more profitability through loans and investments. Formula:- Spread Ratio = Interest Earned / Interest Expensed |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |61,107,025/28,163,787= |59,331,761/24,997,188= |70,450,475/31,025,869= | | |2. 17 times |2. 37 times |2. 7 times | |Askari Bank |22,586,736/13,554,078= |27,952,162/17,936,616= |32,766,351/22,699,583= | | |1. 68 times |1. 56 times |1. 44 times | |Bank Alfalah |35561312/24654180 = |37530256/23855448= |44298178/25687485= | | |1. 44 times |1. 7 times |1. 72 times | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |2. 17 |2. 37 |2. 27 | |Askari Bank |1. 67 |1. 56 |1. 44 | |Bank Alfalah |1. 44 |1. 7 |1. 72 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph shows the Spread Ratio of the UBL which is highest as compare to the other two banks, is at 2. 17 times in the year 2009 and increases to 2. 37 times in the year 2010 and 2. 27 times in the year 2011, decreases the zig zag trend is due to the fluctuation in both aspects interest earn and expensed. While the ratio of Askari bank 1. 67% in the year 2009, 1. 56% in the year 2010 and 1. 4% in the year 2011 respectively. Bank Alfalah ratio shows increasing trend throughout the three years 2009 to 2011 which are as 1. 44%, 1. 57%, 1. 72% which shows better recovery of interest income from its investments 6 Advances / Deposits Ratio Significance It defines the advances banks make from the available deposits. It measures the ability of the bank in fruitful usage of money of the depositors which will increase the markup income. FORMULA: Advances / Deposits Ratio= Total Advances/ Total Deposits Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |354,091,713/492,036,103= |333,732,172/550,645,767= |325,347,208/612,980,139= | | |0. 72 times |0. 61 times |0. 53 times | |Askari Bank |135,034,499/205,970,227= |152,784,137/255,936,503= |150,710,709/291,502,993= | | |0. 6 times |0. 60 times |0. 52 times | |Bank Alfalah |188042438/324759752= |207152546/354015311= |198468512/401247886= | | |0. 58 times |0. 59 times |0. 49 times | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |0. 2 |0. 61 |0. 53 | |Askari Bank |0. 66 |0. 60 |0. 52 | |Bank Alfalah |0. 58 |0. 59 |0. 49 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph shows Advance/Deposit ratio of UBL which is very high as compare to other banks 0. 2 times in the year 2009 and 0. 61 times in the year 2010 and 0. 53 in the year 2011. Askari bank ratio is 0. 66 times, 0. 60 times and 0. 52 times in the consecutive years 2009, 2010 and 2011. While the ratio of bank Alfalah is 0. 58 times in 2009 and increases to 0. 59 times 2010 and decline drastically to 0. 49 times in 2011with 0. 10 times which shows that Bank Alfalah is not utilizing its deposits effectively as compare to other banks. 7 Return on Total Equity (ROE) Significance It measures income bank earns from the equity.

It determines the ability of the institution how productively it uses the money of shareholders in its business. High ratio will allure more investors. FORMULA: Return on total Equity=Net Income/ Total equity*100 |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |9,192,687/52276246*100= |11,159,930/60180924*100= |15,499,663/70,622,933*100= | | |17. 58 % |18. 4 % |21. 94% | |Askari Bank |1097507/ 13142688 |943177/ 14820578*100= |1627698/ 16508782*100= | | |*100= 8. 35 % |6. 36 % |9. 86 % | |Bank Alfalah |897035/ 19770260 *100= |968452/ 19726556*100= |3503130/ 22839886*100= | | |4. 4 % |4. 91 % |15. 34 % | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |17. 58 |18. 54 |25. 76 | |Askari Bank |8. 35 |6. 36 |9. 86 | |Bank Alfalah |4. 4 |4. 91 |15. 34 | [pic] Working of Total Equity UBL (UBL) |  |Working Total equity |  |  | |  |Total Equity |  |  | |  |2009 |2010 |2011 |Share capital |11,128,907 |12,241,798 |12,241,798 | |Reserves |18,959,537 |21,688,637 | | |Un appropriated profit |22,187,802 |26,250,489 | | |Total Equity |52276246 |60180924 | | |  |  |  |  | Working of Total Equity (Askari bank)   |2009 |2010 |2011 | |Share capital |5,073,467 |6,427,440 |7,070,184 | |Reserves |7,235,710 |7,691,319 |8,136,440 | |Un appropriated profit |833,511 |701,819 |1,302,158 | |Total Equity |13,142,688 |14,820,578 |16,508,782 | Working of Total Equity (Bank Alfalah)   |2009 |2010 |2011 | |Share capital |13491563 |13491563 |13491563 | |Reserves |3587969 |3819133 |4100264 | |Un appropriated profit |2690728 |2415860 |5248059 | |Total Equity |19770260 |19726556 |22839886 | Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph show the Return On equity of all the three banks. UBL ratio is 17. 58% in the year 2009, 18. 54% in the year 2010 and 25. 76% in the year 2011. While Askari bank ratio is 8. 35% in 2009, 6. 36% in the period 2010 and 9. 86% in 2011 respectively. Bank Alfalah ratios are 4. 54%, 4. 91% and 15. 34% in the periods 2009, 2010 and 2011.

So on marginal basis Alfalah improves utilization of equity then other two banks. But on the whole, UBL is on the top in optimum utilization of stakeholders equity. 8 Debt Ratio Significance It measures the liabilities of the bank or company against the total assets. It should be low as investors like low ratio because the need their residual interest to be secured. FORMULA: Debt ratio= (Total debt/ Total assets)*100 |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |558,779,710/619,718,433*100= |631,402,822/699,817,887*100= |698,906,833/778,059,741*100= | | |90. 7% |90. 22 % |89. 83 % | |Askari Bank |239,378,374/254,327,446*100= |298,740,410/314,744,552*100= |325,980,040/343,756,306*100= | | |94. 12 % |94. 92% |94. 83% | |Bank Alfalah |366936635/389070055*100= |389178295/411483839*100= |442396764/468173802*100= | | |94. 31% |94. 58 % |94. 49 % | Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |90. 17 |90. 22 |89. 83 | |Askari Bank |94. 12 |94. 92 |94. 83 | |Bank Alfalah |94. 31 |94. 58 |94. 49 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph show the Debt Ratio, UBL ratio is 90. 17 in the year 2009, 81. 15% in the year 2010 and 99. 7% in the year 2011. Askari bank ratio is 94. 12% in 2009, 94. 12% in 2010 and 94. 83% in 2011 which show consistency in the three years. Bank Alfalah shows also consistent trend in 2009, 2010 and 2011 are 94. 31%, 94. 58% and 94. 49%. So results show that UBL ratio is increasing which is not good indication as compare to other banks, while other banks are controlling effectively their Debt ratio. 9 Debt / Equity Ratio Significance It is the percentage of liabilities to shareholders’ money. It will define either the bank is equity or liability based. It also helps to assess the how risky the company is. FORMULA: Debt / Equity Ratio = (total debt/ total equity) Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |558,779,710/52276246= |631,402,822/60180924= |698,906,833/70,622,933= | | |10. 69 times |10. 49 times |9. 90 times | |Askari Bank |239,378,374/13142688= |298,740,410/14820578= |325,980,040/16508782= | | |18. 21 times |20. 16 times |19. 75 times | |Bank Alfalah |366936635/19770260 = 18. 56 times |389178295/19726556= 19. 73 times |442396764/22839886= 19. 37 times | Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |10. 69 |10. 49 |11. 61 | |Askari Bank |18. 21 |20. 16 |19. 75 | |Bank Alfalah |18. 56 |19. 73 |19. 37 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph shows the Debt/Equity ratio where UBL ratio is 10. 69% in 2009,10. 49% in the year 2010 and 11. 1% in the year 2011 respectively which remains consistent in first two years then increases in 2011. Askari bank ratio is 18. 21% in 2009 which too high as compare to UBL, 20. 16% in 2010 and 19. 75% in the year 2011. While Bank Alfalah is on the same level 18. 56% in 2009, 19. 73% and 19. 37% in the years 2010 and 2011. As as consequence of analysis, UBL ratio is much better then other banks as its ratio is approximately 8% below the other banks ratio. 10 Price/Earnings Ratio Significance It will define the price of share against the per share earning. It should be high as it shows business prosperity and growth chances are bright in future. FORMULA: P/E = Current Market Share Price/ EPS Working of EPS EPS WORKING UBL 2009 |2010 |2011 | |Net Income= 9,192,687 |Net Income= 11,159,930 |Net Income= 15,499,663 | |Number of shares= 1,112,890 |Number of shares= 1,224,179 |Number of shares= 1,224,179 | |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares | | |=9,192,687 / 1,112,890 |= 11,159,930/1,224,179 |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares | |= 8. 26 per share |= 9. 12 per share |= 15,499,663/1,224,179 | | | |= 12. 66 per share |

No of outstanding share figure has been taken from the notes i. e Share capital EPS WORKING ASKARI BANK |2009 |2010 |2011 | |Net Income= 1,097,507 |Net Income=943,177 |Net Income= 1,627,698 | | |Number of shares= 642,743 |Number of shares= 707,018 | |Number of shares= 507,346 |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares | | |= 943,177/642,743 |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares | |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares |= 1. 47 per share |= 1,627,698/707,018 | |= 1,097,507/507,346 | | | | | |= 2. 30 per share | |= 2. 16 per share | | | BANK Alfalah 2009 |2010 |2011 | |Net Income= 897,035 |Net Income= 968,452 |Net Income= 3,503,130 | |Number of shares= 134,9156 |Number of shares= 134,9156 |Number of shares= 134,9156 | |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares |= Net income/ outstanding number of shares | |= 897,035/ 134,9156 |= 968,452/ 134,9156 |= 3,503,130/ 134,9156 | |= 0. 66 per share |= 0. 71 per share |= 2. 59 per share | |0. 66 |0. 71 |2. 59 | Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |64. 25/8. 26= 7. 77 times |84. 23/9. 12= 9. 23 times | 84. 17/12. 66= 6. 64 times | |Askari Bank |45. 25/2. 16 = 20. 92 times |64. 75/1. 47 = 44. 12 times |73. 49/2. 30 = 31. 92 times | |Bank Alfalah |77. 45/0. 66 = 116. 48 times |114. 23/0. 72= 159. 13 times |16. 87/2. 60= 6. 69 times | |Banks |2009 |2010 |2011 | |UBL |7. 77 |9. 3 |6. 64 | |Askari Bank |20. 92 |44. 12 |31. 92 | |Bank Alfalah |116. 48 |159. 13 |6. 69 | [pic] Interpretation and comparison The analysis of the above table and graph shows the Price Earning ratios, UBL ratio is 7. 77 times in the year 2009, 9. 23 times in 2010 and 6. 64 times in the year 2011is respectively declining. While Askari bank ratio 20. 92 times in 2009, 44. 12 times in 2010 and increases to 31. 2, on the other hand you can see the P/E of bank Alfalah in year 2009,2010, 2011 is 116. 48 in year 2009, 159. 13 year 2010 and 6. 69 in year 2011. After the result it has proved that Bank Alfalah P/E is higher and better in year 2009 and year 2010 than other two banks. Askari bank and UBL shows declining trend which is unfavorable for the investors. Chapter 4) Conclusion and Recommendations 4. 1) Conclusion Following findings has been inferred on the basis of above ratio analyses which are as 1. Net profit margin ratio of UBL is high as compare to Askari and Alfalah. In addition to that, Bank Alfalah captures the second level in the comparison.

So, UBL has taken over the major share of profit margin 2. Analysis of Operating Cash Flow ratio shows Askari bank ratio is high as compare to UBL and Alfalah. 3. On the basis of ratio analysis UBL gross spread ratio is good and high as compare to Askari and bank Alfalah in the current year. While Bank Alfalah is ranked second in the comparison. 4. In accordance with the analysis of non-interest income to total income ratio UBL ratio is high as compare to the other two banks. While analysis show Askari bank ratio is lowest than UBL and bank Alfalah. 5. The analysis has shown UBL spread ratio is high and much better than other banks in comparison. 6.

On the basis of advance/Deposit ratio analysis UBL ratio is high as compare to Askari and Alfalah in the current year. 7. The analysis of Return on equity ratio shows that UBL return is high and better than the other two banks. 8. Debt ratio Analysis shows that UBL ratio is high than other two banks. While Askari and Alfalah are at the same level. 9. According to the analysis of Debt/Equity ratio Askari bank ratio is high and bank Alfalah is on the second position. 10. The Price/Earning ratio of Askari bank is high in the analysis of the three banks. While UBL is on the second and bank Alfalah is on the third rank. 4. 2) Recommendations 1. The Net profit Margin ratio of Askari and bank Alfalah is low.

In order to improve their net profit both the banks should have to cut down their non markup expenses while, on the other hand their turnover is satisfactory. 2. The Operating cash flow of UBL and Alfalah should have to be improved. These banks should decrease their current liabilities and ensure the availability of more liquidity to meet short term debts. 3. Askari bank and bank Alfalah both banks need to adopt measures to cut down their interest expenses in order to increase their gross spread ratio. 4. In order to increase non interest income Askari and Alfalah needs to increase their earnings through fees, commissions and other advisory charges etc. 5.

In Advance/Deposit ratio Askari bank and Alfalah should have to utilize their deposits in more projects either through corporate financing or general public financing. 6. 6. Return on total equity of Askari bank is low, it should increase its net income by cut down its expenses with significant margin. 7. Debt ratio of UBL is high so it should have to avoid more borrowings and use available funds in more proper ways. 8. Spread ratio of Askari bank is low as compare to other banks it should have to increase its lending and use deposits in effective ways. SECTION II a) Introduction of the student Last Degree Obtained: – Bachelor of Commerce Current Organization Dubai City Flowers LLC, Dubai, UAE

Current Designation: – Administration Manger Experience 10+ years b) BIBLOGRAPHY Askari bank limited Pakistan. (2009). annual-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Askari bank Limited Official website:http://www. askaribank. com. pk/Reports/Askari%20Financials%202009. pdf Askari bank limited Pakistan. (2010). annual-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Askari bank Limited Official website:http://www. askaribank. com. pk/Reports/Askari%20AR2010%20(Final%20Version). pdf Askari bank limited Pakistan. (2011). annual-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Askari bank Limited Official website: http://www. askaribank. com. k/Reports/Askari%20AR%202011%20ALL. pdf United bank limited . (2009). Financial-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from United bank Limited Official website: https://www. ubldirect. com/corporate/resources/ubl/aboutus/financial_report/report_2009/annual_dec09/UBLAnnualReport2009. pdf. United bank limited . (2010). Financial-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from United bank Limited Official website: https://www. ubldirect. com/corporate/resources/ubl/aboutus/financial_report/report_2010/annual_dec10/UBLAnnualReport2010. pdf United bank limited . (2011). Financial-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from United bank Limited Official website: https://www. ubldirect. om/corporate/resources/ubl/aboutus/financial_report/report_2011/Annual_Reports/UBL%20Annual%20Report%202011. pdf Bank Alfalah Limited. (2009). Financial-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Bank Alfalah Limited Official website: http://www. bankalfalah. com/about/download/AnnualReport2009. pdf Bank Alfalah Limited. (2010). Financial-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Bank Alfalah Limited Official website: http://www. bankalfalah. com/about/download/BALAnnualReport2010. pdf Bank Alfalah Limited. (2011). Financial-reports. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from Bank Alfalah Limited Official website: http://www. bankalfalah. com/about/download/BALAnnualReport2011. pdf

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out