LEDESMA, JUDIELLE G. TESL ABE 3-1NOVEMBER 12, 2012 A. 1. Differences between First Language and Second Language | First Language| Second Language|
Definition| any language other than English that a child was exposed to during early development and continues to be exposed to in the home or community| any language learned after the first language or mother tongue | Basis for learning| universal grammar alone| knowledge of the first language also serves as a basis for learning the second language| Learning Process| children spend several years listening to language, babbling, and using telegraphic speech before they can form sentences| in older learners, learning is more rapid and people are able to form sentences within a shorter period of time;Learning in older learners, learners are able to use more metacognitive processes in their learning. They can consciously analyse and manipulate grammatical structures, and they can explicitly describe how language works. | Practice| learners have many chances to practice with native speakers| learners may or may not have the opportunity to practice extensively with native speakers| Acquisition| Almost everyone acquires a first language;happens naturally| not everyone acquires a second language;often requires conscious effort on the part of the learner| 2.
Differences Between Second Language and Foreign Language English as a Second Language (ESL or TESL) also refers to specialized approaches to language teaching designed for those whose primary language is not English (Nordquist, English as a Second Language). English as a Second Language corresponds roughly to the Outer Circle described by linguist Braj Kachru in “Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle” (1985). A foreign language is a language that is from a country other than one’s native country. Foreign languages are usually learned for the sake of learning about the culture and people who speak it.
For example, some people learn ancient Greek for a deeper understanding of the early philosophers from reading their works in their original language. (www. education. brookes. ac. uk/) Foreign language is basically a non-maternal language that you’re learning on purpose rather than naturally. Being in a foreign language environment means that the learner will rarely, if ever, have opportunity for exposure to the target language outside of the classroom (Bilash, 2009). 3. Learning and Acquisition Acquisition is the act of getting knowledge unconsciously. Children acquire knowledge from the time they were born in this world. Learning is acquiring or getting knowledge of a subject of a skill by study, experience, or instruction—consciously. (Corder, 2007).
Children acquire language through a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. This is similar to the way they acquire their first language. They get a feel for what is and what isn’t correct. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication. The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form. Young students who are in the process of acquiring English get plenty of “on the job” practice. They readily acquire the language to communicate with classmates. Language learning, on the other hand, is not communicative. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. And it certainly is not an age-appropriate activity for your young learners.
In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page. Research has shown, however, that knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking or writing. A student who has memorized the rules of the language may be able to succeed on a standardized test of English language but may not be able to speak or write correctly. (Judy Haynes, Language Acquisition vs. Language Learning). 4. Second Language Learning and Bilingualism Second-language learning is the process by which people learn a second language. Bilingualism refers to the ability to speak two languages.
It may be acquired early by children in regions where most adults speak two languages. Bilingualism can also refer to the use of two languages in teaching, especially to foster learning in students trying to learn a new language (Concise Encyclopedia). Bilinguals are often broadly de? ned as individuals or groups of people who obtain the knowledge and use of more than one language. However, bilingualism is a complex psychological and socio-cultural linguistic behaviour and has multi-dimensional aspects. There is no agreed-upon de? nition of bilingualism among researchers (Bhatia and Ritchie, 2004). 5. Theory and Practice In theory, theory and practice are the same. In practice, they are not. Albert Einstein Theory is a set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena (www. thefreedictionary. com). Practice is the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it (http://oxforddictionaries. com). It is an exercise and application of any task or theory or in other words translation of an idea into action. B. Define the following: 1. Approach -this is the your own personal philosophy of teaching. – The method used in dealing with or accomplishing(thefreedictionary. com) -Method is the practical of the objective of teaching in the classroom in a variety of audiences and contexts.
The objects are related to material, sequencing, teacher-student roles and behaviors, linguistic and subject-matter objectives (www. shvoong. com). 2. Method – An orderly procedure or process; regular manner of doing anything; hence, manner; way; mode; as, a method of teaching languages; a method of improving the mind. -Orderly arrangement, elucidation, development, or classification; clear and lucid exhibition; systematic arrangement peculiar to an individual. -Classification; a mode or system of classifying natural objects according to certain common characteristics; as, the method of Theophrastus; the method of Ray; the Linnaean method (www. brainyquote. com) 3. Design Dick Buchanan offered us his formal definition of Design: “Design is the human power to conceive, plan, and realize products that serve human beings in the accomplishment of any individual or collective purpose. ” This is a formal definition, meaning it is fairly rigorous and also fairly dry. There are other, descriptive definitions that are livelier: “Design is making things right. ” –Ralph Kaplan. “Design is the glimmer in God’s eye. ” –Anonymous 4. Procedure – an established or official way of doing something – A fixed, step-by-step sequence of activities or course of action (with definite start and end points) that must be followed in the same order to correctly perform a task. Repetitive procedures are called routines (www. businessdictionary. com)