Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon’s Philosophy of Science In 1620, Francis Bacon; the philosopher and creator of Empiricism made a great contribution in defining the course of modern science by a breakthrough in process of scientific reasoning and method. Bacon did not propose an actual philosophy of science rather a method of developing philosophy. He demanded science based on induction. While being the first in the philosophy of science, Bacon discovered that Aristotle methods taught scientists nothing about the universe.

The contributions Bacon made to the philosophy of science impacted the involvement of psychology today. Bacon was greatly influenced by the Renaissance period and made an impact in the modern era of knowledge (Ochulor, 2011). Francis Bacon believed that empiricists gathered important information, but had little idea on how to use their knowledge. Bacon made many contributions to the history of the philosophy of science, but the biggest was the idea of experimental science. He believed research could be used to test real world observations. According to Bacon, science should include no theories, no hypotheses, no mathematics, and no deductions but should involve only the facts of observation” (Esper, 1964). Bacon had little trust in rationalism due to its emphasis on words, and he distrusted mathematics because of its emphasis on symbols. He trusted only the direct observation and recording of nature. With Bacon being a radical empiricist, he stated the ultimate authority in science was to be empirical observation. Positivism was later the name of Bacon’s approach to science.

Bacon advocated the theory of dual truth; truth of reason and truth of revelation. Bacon referred reason to revelation as the source of philosophical and scientific reasoning which can lead one to believe him as a rationalist but more of an empiricist. “For Francis Bacon, it is only through the concept of experimentation and observation that one can arrive at true knowledge” (Ochulor, 2011). The idea of the inductive method was brought into modern science and philosophy and believed it was the surest way to knowledge. Francis Bacon had many contributions to modern science, but he had many weaknesses to follow.

The major weakness Francis Bacon had was the lack of hypothesis. Throughout history one knows in order to prove something in science is to have a hypothesis. Bacon suggested, “One may look at facts and the hypothesis would suggest itself” (Ochulor, 2011). Although Francis Bacon’s life was not without controversy, he remained a leading thinker in philosophy and was well versed in the field of scientific methodology. Bacon as well as other Empiricists believed that the mind was a blank slate and that all knowledge and ideas developed though the senses and through experiences.

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Francis Bacon used the idea of inductive reasoning to develop the idea that science prospers through observation and experience. This included the study of the mind. The study of science and the study of the mind came about through Francis Bacon’s efforts as well as others that influence Psychology today. References Esper, E. A. (1964). A history of psychology. Philadelphia: Saunders. Ochulor, C. , & Metuonu, I. (2011). Francis Bacon’s Qualification as the Father of Modern Philosophy. Canadian Social Science, 7(6), 258-263. doi:10. 3968/j. css. 1923669720110706. 207

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