(n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend
formal term for the “melting pot” concept of the merging of many immigrant ethnic heritages into a composite American mainstream
Convergence of newcomers and host groups, with affecting each other, not unidirectional movement towards the native group
American born descendants of Europeans
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Lanuage, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs people share and learn.
A related set of culture traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
An area in which people have many shared culture traits
A collection of interacting elements taken together shape a group’s collective identity. Includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, and more complex elements, like language
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.
A version of a language that reflects speech changes related to class, region, or other cultural changes
Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture.
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
Culturally constructed distinctions between masculinity and femininity.
exchange of genes between populations
A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
The complex of ideas, beliefs, knowledge, and means of their communication that characterize a culture.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people.
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people’s behavior
A group of human beings distinguished by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns or genetically inherited characteristics.
expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations in economic, political, military, religious and other associations
The spread of ideas, diseases, products, and people between lands. An example of this was the trade of silk and the spread of the Bubonic Plague, and the Islamic religion along the Silk Road..
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
A blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith.
The complex of material objects together with the techniques of their use by means of which people carry out purposeful and productive tasks.
The study of the origins and meaning of place-names.
An ethnic religion specific to a small, localized, pre-industrial culture group.
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
A simplified form of speech developed from two or more languages