Geography Review Test 1

Geography Review Test 1

What map component defines the ratio between a distance on the map and the actual distance on earth?
scale
Which lines are parallel to the Equator?
latitude
Which is the most accurate method of showing the entire surface of the earth?
globe
Which type of maps would most likely show the elevation of the Andes Mountains?
physical map
Which type of maps would best show which minerals are mined in Australia?
economic activities and resources map
Which lines on a global grid run from pole to pole?
meridians of longitude
Which type of map only includes features that are determined by people – like state and national boundaries and capital cities?
political map
A geographer would most likely use sonar to do which task?
map a section of the ocean floor
Which geographic tool uses computer technology to collect, manipulate, analyze and display data about the earth’s surface?
GIS
The ____________ of Chicago is 42 degrees N, 88 degrees W.
absolute location
What are formal regions?
areas in which certain characteristics are found throughout the area
A geographer would most likely use GPS for which task?
to provide detailed information about a location
Which is an example of a human characteristic of a place?
language
Which type of region is defined by people’s feelings and attitudes?
perceptual
How are landforms commonly classified?
according to differences in relief
When are cone-shaped volcanoes created?
when alternating sequences of explosive eruptions and smooth lava flows occur
Which type of forces create landforms?
internal forces that originate in the earth’s interior
Which theory explains why rocks found on the ocean floor are younger than those found on continents?
seafloor spreading
Which describes the circular motion of heat below the earth’s surface?
subduction
What happens in the process of faulting?
plates slip or grind past each other
Which is a type of chemical weathering?
acid rain
How does frost wedging affect a place’s physical landscape?
It can cause huge parts of a mountainside to break and fall away
How is a delta created?
by sediments deposited when a river flowing from mountains empties into an ocean
What effect do moraines have on physical landscapes?
The act like dams or form long ridges of land.
Climate is a term that describes _____.
weather patterns
In the Alps, above the treeline, you can expect to find:
rocks, ice, and small plants
How does orographic precipitation form in the coastal areas?
Moist winds are forced upward by high landforms.
Why don’t winds blow directly north and south on the earth?
The axis of the earth tilts some areas away from the sun.
How do the waters of the earth’s oceans help distribute heat from one place to another?
Currents carry warm water from the Equator to the poles.
Why is the “greenhouse effect” important for life on the earth?
It keeps the earth’s air and water warm.
Why do areas farthest from the Equator have the coldest climates?
The sun’s rays are less direct in those areas.
What kind of precipitation occurs when air masses of different temperatures meet?
frontal
In a humid continental climate region, to what conditions would plants and animals have to be adapted?
warm summers and cold winters
Which areas are temperate grasslands?
prairies, velds, pampas
Some scientists theorize that global warming _____.
is the result of increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
What could be the effect of global warming if polar ice caps melt?
flooding of low-lying areas
Where are mixed regions of coniferous and deciduous forests found?
in cool parts of middle latitudes
Which statement describes summer in the Northern Hemisphere?
The North Pole is tilted toward the sun.
The regions of light and unpredictable winds at about 30° North and South latitudes are called _____.
horse latitudes
The “needles” on coniferous trees _____.
can remain on the tree in winter without freezing
Snow forms on Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa because of the mountain’s _____.
elevation
Which terms describe a world climate region?
tropical
continental
polar
Scientists who are concerned about increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere believe global warming is caused by _____.
human actions
Describe tropical rain forests.
The largest remaining rain forests are in the Amazon River and Congo River basins.
Each layer of the forest supports a different community of plants and animals.
More than half of the earth’s plant and animal species live in rain forests.
How does convection transfer heat from one place to another on the earth?
through the movement of winds and currents
What factors make it difficult for scientists to classify world climate regions?
changing conditions and lack of accurate weather data
What is one possible effect of global warming?
Areas that support agriculture could become deserts.
Describe ecosystems.
Plants depend upon one another for shade, support, and food.
The same types of animals live in similar ecosystems around the world.
Climate, elevation, soil, and landforms affect life in an ecosystem.
What is an example of a biome?
coniferous forest
Where are mixed regions of coniferous and deciduous forests found?
in cool parts of middle latitudes
On the savanna, what do carnivores depend on for food?
herbivores
Plants in the arctic tundra must be able to live _____.
without sunlight for most of the winter
How are the leaves of plants adapted to the tundra?
They are large and tilt toward the sun.
A biome is a _____.
major type of ecosystem
It would not be possible for _____ to survive in a desert.
plants with large leaves that tilt toward the sun
Which type of plant is not found in the arctic tundra?
conifers
Which type of forest has been most affected by human actions throughout history?
deciduous
What conditions prevent trees from growing in the tundra?
elevation and lack of sunlight
What has been a common cause of war throughout history?
land and resources
How do majority groups not use economic measures to discriminate against the minority?
making minority groups get an education
What is the cornerstone to culture?
language
What is the major language family in North America?
Indo-European
Why is religion an important aspect of culture?
It supports the values that a group of people consider important
In what regions of the world is Islam the predominant religion?
Northern Africa, the middle east, and southern Asia
How are unique cultural landscapes created?
By using natural resources or altering the surface of the earth
Which factor has been responsible for the declining death rate in many of the world’s less industrialized nations?
improved health
What is one cause of a country’s population increase?
a higher birthrate than death rate
What human activity does not alter the earth’s landscape?
Wearing heavy clothes in cold climates.
An example of people adapting to their environment is _____.
wearing thin clothes in hot climates
What would you expect to find in a country with zero population growth?
about equal birthrates and death rates
Which word describes something that is part of a country’s nonmaterial culture?
language
Many cultures have a long history of discrimination against _____.
religious and ethnic minorities
Which is an example of restricted social mobility in a culture?
binding women’s feet in eighteenth century China
Trees in deciduous forests _____.
shed their leaves during one seaso
Which situation would most likely cause the population within a country to grow?
more immigrants than emigrants
An area with a high population density has _____.
many people living in a small area
A country does not need a clearly defined _____.
language
Who makes and carries out the laws in most representative democracies?
the legislature
Socialist countries are sometimes called welfare states because _____.
the state provides many social services
To be identified as a country, an area must have _____.
a clearly defined territory, population, and sovereign government
Socialist systems often have mixed economies because the state _____.
shares economic control with private enterprise
The average per capita GDP is vastly greater in:
developed countries than in developing or underdeveloped countries
How do GDP and standard of living vary between developed and developing nations?
Developed countries have higher GDP and a higher standard of living than developing countries
The United States, Japan, and France are classified as developed countries because _______.
the people are healthy and educated
Countries that have the lowest GDP are called
underdeveloped countries
Which activity is a primary economic activity?
subsistence farming
What type of manufacturing is most common in subsistence economies?
cottage industries
Where are primary resource activities located?
Near the necessary natural resources
How does the uneven distribution of resources around the world _not_ affect patterns of settlement and migration?
What clothes they wear
Describe fossil fuels.
The world’s oil supply is limited.
Most industrialized countries use fossil fuels for energy.
Most natural gas is found in Eurasia.
Describe nuclear energy.
Many countries use electricity generated by nuclear power.
Refining uranium contributes to global warming.
Uranium is not a renewable resource.
Nuclear energy involves the danger of leaks or explosions.
What makes water a renewable resource?
It is replaced by constant, natural processes.