It is estimated that Jupiter’s icy moon Europa contains a hidden ocean of liquid water under its icy surface layer.
How deep is the Mariana Trench (the deepest part of the ocean) compared to Mount Everest (the tallest mountain on Earth)?
The Marina Trench is thousands of meters deeper than Mount Everest is tall
True or false? The Phoenicians sea voyages took them as far north as the British Isles?
The method of determining latitude in the Northern Hemisphere by measuring the angle between an observer’s line of site to the North Star and line of site to the northern horizon was developed by:
The first person we are aware of who determined the circumference of the Earth using trigonometry and the angle of sunlight at Alexandria, Egypt, was:
Which of the following Vikings is credited with discovering Greenland?
The study of the structure of the sea floor and how the sea floor has changed through time is an example of ________ oceanography.
What are the major steps involved in the scientific method?
observation, hypothesis, testing, theory
The nebular hypothesis suggests that:
all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous gas cloud
Which of the following was true about the Protoearth?
protoearth’s deep structure was homogeneous
How are the materials that make up Earth’s interior stratified in relation to their densities?
the highest density materials are concentrated at earth’s core, while lower density materials are located closer to earth’s surface
How do the physical properties of the asthenosphere differ from the lithosphere?
The asthenosphere is plastic or malleable and capable of slow flow. The lithosphere is a brittle and rigid solid region comprised mostly of basalt and granite.
The principal constituents of Earth’s early atmosphere most likely included:
carbon dioxide, water vapor, ammonia, and methane
Which statement best describes the origin of Earth’s oceans?
the water that fills our oceans was mostly derived from outgassing with a minor component coming from ice comets
Earth’s atmosphere became oxygen rich about 2.45 ________ years ago.
Radioactive materials can sometimes be used to determine the:
ages of rock
The largest geographic feature on the surface of Planet Earth is __________.
The important contribution to navigation made by Eratosthenes in the third century BC was __________.
a reasonably accurate calculation of the circumference of our planet
Which of the following would best describe the principal goal of science? Select only one answer.
to explain the causes and effects of observable natural phenomena
Which of the following statements is supported by the nebular hypothesis regarding the formation of our solar system?
he Sun became a star when its temperature and density became so great that nuclear fusion began.
Compared to continental crust, oceanic crust is generally __________.
thinner, denser, darker in color, and at lower elevations
Of the following statements about Earth’s crust, which is/are true? Choose all that apply.
1.) Continental crust is made of rock that is relatively light in color.
2.) Continental crust and oceanic crust are both composed of igneous rocks.
3.) Continental crust is less dense than oceanic crust.
The water in Earth’s oceans came __________.
mostly from volcanic outgassing and partly from comets
Earth’s current atmosphere supports animal life because __________.
plant photosynthesis provides oxygen that is critical for aerobic respiration
Stanley Miller’s famous experiment demonstrated that __________.
organic molecules could be produced from the mixture of gases comprising Earth’s early atmosphere
Which of the following ideas support our current scientific understanding of the development of life on Earth? Choose all that apply.
1.) Early organisms evolved into more-complex organisms over geologic time.
2.) The “prebiotic soup” of the primitive oceans provided favorable conditions for life to develop.
3.) Primitive life likely existed without the need for oxygen.
4.) As life evolved it significantly changed Earth’s environment.