Geology Quiz 3

Geology Quiz 3

How does a catastrophe differ from a disaster
damages from a catastrophe are of such a magnitude to require a long recovery period.
how are the magnitude and frequency of natural hazard events typically related
inversely related
why is history important in understanding natural hazards
most natural hazards are repetitive events
why are precursor events important
precursor events provide warning that a hazardous process is becoming active
why are hazard warnings sometimes problematic
warnings are sometimes inaccurate
to what does the concept of acceptable risk refer
the risk that society or individuals are willing to endure
what is the difference between a reactive response and an anticipatory response
a reactive response has to do with recovery, while an anticipatory response has to do with preparedness
why is land use planning usually more effective than artificial control of natural hazards
most hazardous natural processes are not easily artificially controlled
why might global warming increase the magnitude and/or frequency of weather related hazards
warmer ocean waters will channel more energy into the atmosphere
why does population increase affect the number of catastrophic events
a greater number of people occupy lands in the path of hazardous processes
T/F the deadly 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz is an example of inaccurate prediction
false
T/F the magnitude and frequency of a natural hazard are typically inversely related
true
T/F a catastrophe is an event that requires a long recovery period
true
T/F most natural hazards are non-repetitive events
false
T/F hazardous processes can become catastrophes because of population increase
true
a deadly eruption of the Columbian volcano ________ provided lessons concerning the dissemination of scientific predictions of natural hazards
Nevado del Ruiz
the recurrence interval of an event, also known as its _______ is typically inversely related to the event’s magnitude
frequency
a ______ is a disaster from which the recovery is long and involved
catastrophe
benefits of ______ include enrichment of soils and the creation of new land
volcanism
New Orleans flooded after a near-miss from Hurricane Katrina because numerous ______ broke
levees
how does an earthquake’s magnitude differ from its intensity?
magnitude reflects energy release, while intensity reflects the amount of shaking
the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes were different from most California earthquakes because
the New Madrid were intraplate earthquakes located near the center of the North American Plate
a strike-slip fault has what type of motion
horizontal
an active fault is defined as a fault that
has experienced movement during the Holocene time
surface waves are produced by
P and S waves reaching the surface
during the strain accumulation phase of the earthquake cycle
rocks are deformed elastically
how can injection of liquid wastes cause earthquakes
it increases fluid pressure and reduces friction
tsunamis travel
more slowly in shallow water than in deep water, causing the wave crests to rise
ground rupture occurs during an earthquake as
a near-surface fault breaks the surface