GLENCOE WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 9

GLENCOE WORLD HISTORY CHAPTER 9

Byzantine Empire
By the beginning of the 8th century, the Eastern Roman Empire was much smaller, consisting only of the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor. a unique civilization that lasted until 1453. The empire was both a Greek and a Christian state.
Carolingian Renaissance
rebirth. This revival involved renewed interest in Latin culture and classical works-the works of the Greeks and the Romans.
Charlemagne
This powerful ruler,known to history as Charles the Great.
Chivalry
in the Middle Ages, the ideal of civilized behavior that developed among the nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
Clovis
strong military leader who around 500 became the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity
Common Law
a uniform system of law that developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replaced law codes that varied from place to place
Crusades
military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to reain the Holy Land from the Muslims
Feudal system, contract
under feudalism, the unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
Fief
under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief
Franks
Only one of the German state on the European continent proved long lasting
Gregory I
a strong pope, known as Gregory the Great, strengthened the power of the papacy (office of the pope) and the church
Henry II
reign from 1154 to 1189. Henry increased the number of criminal cases tried in the king’s court and also devised means for taking property cases from local courts to the royal courts. common law
Holy Land
Palestine
Justinian
became emporer of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527, he was determined to reestablish the Roman Empire in the entire Mediterranean world.
Magna Carta
The Great Charter of rights, which King John was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymeade in 1215
Monastery Life
Living the life of a monk. Dedicate his life to god.
Ordeal
a means of determining guilt in Germanic law, based on the idea of divine intervention: if accused person was unharmed orafter a physical trial, he or she was presumed innocent
Parliament
In the thirteenth century, during the reigh of Edward I, an important institution in the development of representative government, the English, emerged. It was comprised of two knights from every country, two people from every town, and all of the nobles and bishops throughout England.
Philip II Augustus
reigned from 1180 to 1223 was a turning point in French nonarchy, expanding its income and power.
Philip IV
Philip claimed the right to tax the clergy.
Poop Innocent III
intiated the Fourth crusade. As it headed east, the crusading army became involved in a fight over the Byzantine empire. In 1204, the crusaders sacked Constantinople.
Richard the Lion Heart
Agreeded to lead a Third Crusade. Richard negotiated a settlement with Saladin that permitted Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem.
Saint Benedict
In the sixth century, wrote a set of rules to guide a community of monks he founded. The community became the model for monasticism in the Catholic Church and the Benedictine rule came to be used by other manastic groups.
Saladin
In 1187, the Holy City of Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under him.
Vikings
Norsemen or Northmen of Scndinavia. the most faor-reaching attacks of the time.
Wergild
“money for a man”, the value of a person in money, depending on social status; in Germanic society, a fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed
William of Normandy
On October 14, 1066, an army of heavily armed knights under him landed on the coast of England and soundly defeated King Harold and his foot soilders, at the Battle of Hastings.