Global History Vocabulary Words

Global History Vocabulary Words

Primary Source
Text that tells a first-hand account of an event; original works used when researching (letters, journals).
Secondary Source
Information gathered by someone who did not take part in or witness an event.
Monotheism
The belief in one god (Christianity, Islam, Judaism).
Polytheism
The belief in many gods (Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.).
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one’s civilization is superior to another.
Cultural Diffusion
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one civilization to another.
Geography
The study of the world and its features.
Paleolithic Age
The time period when people were nomadic and were hunters and gatherers.
Neolithic Revolution
The change from nomadic hunting-gathering to settled villages.
Nomad
A person who moves from place to place.
Hieroglyphics
An Egyptian written language.
Ziggurat
A Mesopotamian pyramid.
Cuneiform
Mesopotamian written language.
Code of Hammurabi
A law code in Mesopotamia stating that a person who commits a crime must be charged with similar and cruel punishments.
Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
Advanced Indian Civilizations.
Caste System
A Hindu belief which features a rigid class system with no social mobility.
Dharma
One’s duty (Hindu).
Karma
One’s actions (Hindu).
Reincarnation
The belief that one is reborn after death, believed in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Moksha
The ultimate goal (Hindu).
Siddhartha Gautama
The founder of Buddhism.
4 Noble Truths
Buddhist belief; all life is suffering.
Nirvana
The ultimate goal (Buddhist).
Asoka
Spread Hinduism with rock edicts.
Akbar the Great
Emperor of the Mughal Empire, who believed in religious toleration and was an absolute monarch.
River of Sorrows
Nickname for the Huang He River.
Mandate of Heaven
The justification for a dynasty to overthrow another. Similar to Divine Right.
Dynastic Cycle
The press of one dynasty replacing another after claiming the Mandate of Heaven.
Shi Huangdi
Legalist emperor during the Qin Dynasty who had harsh punishments and instructed the building of the Great Wall.
Silk Road
Spread across Asia and was regulated by China. Cultural Diffusion.
Civil Service Exam
A test taken in Han China that allowed for government positions. Based on Confucian Texts.
Filial Piety
A Confucian belief that an individual should respect their elders.
Legalism
The belief that strict and harsh laws should be established.
Confucianism
The belief that education is essential, and five relationships.
Taoism
The belief that rules are pointless, and people should go with the flow.
Classical Civilization
They served as standards for excellence and were historically memorable and relevant.
Democracy
Founded in Athens, the government is handled by the people.
Oligarchy
Used in Sparta, ruling by a few.
Polis
A city-state.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Egypt, Persia, and India.
Hellenism
The combination of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture.
Patrician
The high class in Rome.
Plebeian
The low class in Rome.
Pax Romana
The Golden Age of Rome which had much prosperit and achievements such as the development of the Twelve Tables.
Aqueduct
A structure built in Rome that allowed for water transport.
12 Tables
A law code developed in Rome that served as the basis for modern laws.
Chinampas
A man-made floating island used by the Aztecs to adapt to their environment.
Terrace Farming
The process of carving into mountains used by the Incas to adapt to their environment.
Quipu
Bead-like objects used by the Incas in place of a written language.
Inca
Located in the Andes Mountains and used terrace farming as means of adaptation.
Aztec
Located in present-day Mexico and used Chinampas as means to adaptation.
Maya
Located on the Yucatan Peninsula and had an advanced civilization.
Feudalism
The exchange of land for service from the high class to the low class.
Fief
The grant of land in a feudal society.
Code of Chivalry
The code the knights abide by in Europe.
Manorialism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Magna Carta
A document written in 1215 that limited a monarch’s power in England.
Parliament
Established to help reduce the power of an absolute monarch.
Crusades
A series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims that resulted in an immense increase in trade.
Black Death
A plague that resulted in the death of 1/3 of the population.
Hundred Years’ War
A war between England and France over the next ruler of France.
Joan of Arc
A young prophet who acted as the turning point for the Hundred Years’ War.
Gothic Architecture
The use of flying buttresses in architecture.
Constantinople
A major trade and commercial city located formerly in the Byzantine Empire before being taken over and renamed by the Ottoman Turks.
Justinian’s Code
A law code of Byzantine which preserved Greco-Roman ideas.
Hagia Sophia
Eastern Orthodox Church built in Constantinople
Cyrillic Alphabet
Given to Russia by the Byzantine Empire.
Hajj
A holy trip to Mecca mandated by Islam.
5 Pillars
Holy symbols of Islam that required Muslims to believe in only Allah, pray five times a day, give alms, fast during Ramadan, and take a hajj to Mecca.
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam.
Sunni vs. Shiite
The split in Islam over who should be the next caliph.
Hejira
The migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina
Janissary
Member of elite fighting force comprised of christian slaves in the Ottoman Empire
Sahara Desert
Located in Africa; provides protection but is impossible to cultivate.
Gold and Salt Trade
Provided West African Kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai) with great wealth.
Mansa Musa
Mali ruler who spread Islam during his Hajj to Mecca and inflated the price of gold.
Zheng He
An explorer during the Ming Dynasty.
Mongols
Unified by Ghengis Khan and ruled over a vast empire.
Marco Polo
Italian Explorer who explored the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan.
Hermit Kingdom
Korea was called this because it chose to isolate itself from Chinese and Japanese influences.
Shintoism
The Japanese belief in nature spirits called kami.
Samurai
The Japanese equivalent of knights.
Code of Bushido
Code of conduct for the samurai.
Renaissance
A time of rebirth of Roman and Greek culture.
Humanism
The Renaissance belief in the great ability of an individual.
Martin Luther
Created the 95 Theses and opposed the sale of indulgences.
Indulgences
Paying money for the forgiveness of sins.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Council of Trent
Attempted to reform the Catholic Church.
Inquisition
A court established by Catholics to try and persecute non-Catholics.
Missionary
Someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program.
Conquistador
A Spanish conqueror.
Encomienda System
A forced system of labor imposed on the Natives.
Mercantilism
The belief that colonies merely exist to provide raw materials for the mother country.
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of materials from the New World and the Old World.
Divine Right
To right to rule granted by God. Similar to the Mandate of Heaeven.
Louis XIV
An absolute monarch who built the Palace of Versailles.
Glorious Revolution
A peaceful confrontation leading to the establishment of the
Bill of Rights, limiting the power of a monarch.
Peter the Great
A Russian ruler who attempted to westernize Russia.
Absolute Monarch
A ruler who acquires total control over their civilization granted by divine right.
Palace of Versaille
Built by Louis XIV in an attempt to seize sole leadership.
Henry VIII
An English King who wanted an annulment, so he created the Anglican Church.
Gutenburg
Invented the Printing Press.
Limited Monarchy
A monarch whose power is restricted by a Parliament.
Predestination
The belief by John Calvin that one’s life is determined before one is born.
Patron of the arts
A ruler who propagates the arts.