A PROJECT REPORT ON BEHAVIOURAL ASPECT OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURAL ASPECT OF LEADERSHIP BUSINESS SCHOOL OF DELHI GREATER NOIDA SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: PROF. VEENU ARORA ROHIT KUMAR PGDM(2011-13) INTRODUCTION Good leaders are made not born . If you have the desire and will power ,you can become an effective leader. good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self study, education, training and experience.
This guide will help you through that process. to inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know ,and ,do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. Before we get started, les define leadership. Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.
A person carries out this process by applying his or her leadership attributes (belief, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills). Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. s and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader… it simply makes you the boss. Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives, while, on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or an objective. Bass’ (1) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders, the first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people.
These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. Tg is is THE TRAIT THEORY. Crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is THE GREAT EVENT THEORY. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY. It is most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. When a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader, hedoes not think about your attributes.
He observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. He uses this observation to tell if you are an honourable and trusted leader, or a self serving person who misuses his or her authority to look good and get promoted. Self serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their people. The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization .
In your employees’ eyes, Your leadership is everything you do that affects the organizations objectives and their well being. A respected leader concentrates on what she is [be] (beliefs and character), what she knows job, tasks, human nature), and what she does (implement, motivate, provide direction). What makes a person follow a leader? People want to guided by those they respect and those who have a clear sense of direction. to gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. TWO MOST IMPORTANT KEYS OFLEADERSHIP
Hay’s study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that: trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to win organizational trust and confidence: helping the employees understand the company’s overall business strategy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. Bring information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an own employee’s division is doing -relative to strategic business objectives.
So basically, you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where you are going. Notice how the “PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP” in the next section closely ties in with this. HUMAN RELATIONS The six most important words: “i admit i made a mistake. “The five most important words: “you did a good job. “The four most important words: “what is your opinion. “The three most important words: “if you please. “The two most important words: “thank you. “The one most important word: “we. “The least most important word: PRINCIPLE OF LEADERSHIP
TO HELP YOU BE, KNOW, AND DO, (2) FOLLOW THESE ELEVEN principles of leadership (later sections will expand on gaining an insight into these principles and providing tools to perform them):Know yourself and seek self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through reading, self-study, classes, etc. be technically proficient. As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ jobs. Seek responsibility and take responsibility of your actions. Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights.
And when things go wrong, they will sooner or later, do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. Make sound and timely decisions. Use good problem solving, decision making and planning tools. Set the example. Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do but also see. Know your people and look out for their well-being. Know human nature and importance of sincerely caring for your workers. Keep your people informed. Know how to communicate with your people within the organization. Develop a sense of responsibility in your people.
Develop good character traits within your people that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished. Communication is the key to this responsibility. Train your people as a team. Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. A team; they are not really teams… they are just a group of people doing their jobs. Use the full capabilities of your organization. By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities
FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP The four major factors of leadership are ….. THE FOLLOWER: Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person with a different attitude requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature: needs, emotions, and motivation. You must know your employees’ be, know and do attributes. LEADER: You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do.
Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. If a follower does no it trust or lacks confidence in his or her leader, then she will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your supervisors, that you are worthy of being followed. COMMUNICATION: You lead through two way communication. Much of it is non-verbal. For instance, when you “set the example,” that communicates to your people that you would no task them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do.
What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. SITUATION: All situations are different. What you do in one leadership situation will not always work in another situation. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective . ATTRIBUTES if you are a leader that can be trusted, then the people around you will learn to respect you.
To be a good leader, there are things thtu must be, know, and do. these fall under the leadership framework: BE a professional. BE a professional who possess good character traits. KNOW the four factors of leadership- follower, leader, communication, situation. KNOW yourself . KNOW human nature KNOW your job KNOW your organization. DO provide direction. DO implement. DO motivate. Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning The Tuck man model(2)shows the five stages that teams go through: from Forming to Storming to Norming to Performing to Adjourning.
Forming In the Forming stage, team members are introduced. They state why they were chosen or volunteered for the team and what they hope to accomplish within the team. Members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior. This is a stage of transition from individual to member status, and of testing the leader’s guidance both formally and informally. Forming includes these feelings and behaviors: Excitement, anticipation, and optimism. Pride in being chosen for the project A tentative attachment to the team Suspicion and anxiety about the job.
Defining the tasks and how they will be accomplished. Determining acceptable group behavior. Deciding what information needs to be gathered. Abstract discussions of the concepts and issues, and for some members, impatience with the discussions. There will be difficulty in identifying some of the relevant problems. Because there is so much going on to distract members’ attention in the beginning, the team accomplishes little, if anything, that concerns it’s project goals. This is perfectly normal. Storming During the team’s transition from the “As-Is” tothe “To-Be,” is called the Storming phase.
All members have their own ideas as to how theprocess should look, and personal agendas arerampant. Storming is probably the most difficultstage for the team. They begin to realize thetasks that are ahead are different and moredifficult than they imagined. Impatient about thelack of progress, members argue about just whatactions the team should take. They try to relysolely on their personal and professionalexperience, and resist collaborating with most of the other team members. Storming includes these feelings and behaviors:Resisting the tasks. Resisting quality improvement approachessuggested by other members.
Sharp fluctuations in attitude about the teamand the project’s chance of success. Arguing among members even when they agreeon the real issues. Defensiveness, competition, and choosing sides. Questioning the wisdom of those who selectedthis project and appointed the other membersof the team. Establishing unrealistic goals. Disunity, increased tension, and jealousy. The above pressures mean that team membershave little energy to spend on progressingtowards the team’s goal. But they are beginningto understand one another. This phase sometimestakes 3 or 4 meetings before arriving at theNorming phase.
Norming The Norming phase is when the team reaches aconsensus on the “To-Be” process. Everyonewants to share the newly found focus. Enthusiasmis high, and the team is tempted to go beyond theoriginal scope of the process. During this stage,members reconcile competing loyalties andresponsibilities. They accept the team, teamground rules, their roles in the team, and theindividuality of fellow members. Emotionalconflict is reduced as previously competitiverelationships become more cooperative. Norming includes these feelings and behaviors:An ability to express criticism constructively.
Acceptance of membership in the team. An attempt to achieve harmony by avoidingconflict. More friendliness, confiding in each other, andsharing of personal problems. A sense of team cohesion, spirit, and goals. Establishing and maintaining team ground rules and boundaries. As team members begin to work out their differences, they now have more time and energy to spend on the project. Performing The team has now settled its relationships andexpectations. They can begin performing bydiagnosing, solving problems, and choosing andimplementing changes.
At last team membershave discovered and accepted each other’sstrengths and weakness, and learned what theirroles are. Performing includes these feelings andbehaviors:Members have insights into personal and groupprocesses, and better understanding of eachother’s strengths and weakness. Constructive self-change. Ability to prevent or work through groupproblemsClose attachment to the teamThe team is now an effective, cohesive unit. Youcan tell when your team has reached this stagebecause you start getting a lot of work done. Adjourning The team briefs and shares the improved processduring the this phase.
When the team finallycompletes that last briefing, there is always abittersweet sense of accomplishment coupledwith the reluctance to say good-bye. Manyrelationships formed within these teams continuelong after the team disbands TEAM VS GROUP There are several factors that separate teamsfrom groups. Roles and Responsibilities Within a group, individuals establish a set of behaviors called roles. These roles setexpectations governing relationships. Roles oftenserve as source of confusion and conflict. Whileon the other hand, teams have a sharedunderstanding on how to perform their role.
These roles include: leader, facilitator,timekeeper, and recorder. Identity While teams have an identity, groups do not. It isalmost impossible to establish the sense of cohesion that characterizes a team without thisfundamental step. A team has a clearunderstanding about what constitutes the team’s’work’ and why it is important. They can describea picture of what the team needs to achieve, andthe norms and values that will guide them Cohesion Teams have an esprit that shows a sense of bonding and camaraderie. Esprit is the spirit,soul, and state of mind of the team.
It is theoverall consciousness of the team that a personidentifies with and feels a part of. Individualsbegin using “we” more than “me. ” Facilitate Groups have a tendency to get bogged down withtrivial issues. Ask yourself, “How much time getswasted in meetings you attend? ” Teams usefacilitators to keep the team on the right path. Communication While members of a group are centered uponthemselves, the team is committed to opencommunication. Team members feel they canstate their opinions, thoughts, and feelingswithout fear. Listening is considered as importantas speaking.
Differences of opinion is valued andmethods of managing conflict are understood. Through honest and caring feedback, membersare aware of their strengths and weakness asteam members. There is an atmosphere of trustand acceptance and a sense of community. Flexibility Most groups are extremely rigid. Teams, howevermaintain a high level of flexibility, and theyperform different task and maintenance functionsas needed. The responsibility for teamdevelopment and leadership is shared. Thestrengths of each member are identified andused. Morale Team members are enthusiastic about the work of the team and each person feels pride in being a 16 ember of the team. Team spirit is high. To be asuccessful team, the group must have a strongability to produce results and a high degree of satisfaction in working with one another. <> Working With Other TeamMembers Although we are like in many ways, we are dislikein a lot more ways. Humans have always tried toclassify things, including themselves. This sectionuses a popular categorizer by placing people intofour styles – Driver, Persuader, Analyzer,Organizer. (note that the names will vary widelydepending upon the creator of the chart). It doesthis by charting them on two dimensions – tasksand emotions.
People gets results on tasksbetween two extremes – expedience andprocesses. People use emotions in dealing withothers through two extremes – controlled orresponsive. In the chart below, the twodimensions are shown under the profile Character: Be a piece of the rock • Charisma: The first impression can seal the deal. • Commitment: It seperates doers from dreamers • Communication: without it you travel alone • Competence: if you build it they will come • Courage: one person with courage is a majority • Discernment: put an end to unsolved mysteries •
Focus: the sharper it is, the sharper you are • Generosity: your candle loses nothing when it lights another • Initiative: you wont leave home without it • Listening: to connect with their hearts use your ears 43 • Passion: take this life and love it • Positive attitude: if you believe you can, you can • Problem solving: you cant let your problems be a problem • Relationships: if you get along they will go along • Resposibility: if you wont carry the ball you wont lead theteam • Security: competence never compensates for insecurity • Self-discipline: the first person you lead is you •