Lecture Notes on Measuring the Economy

Lecture Notes on Measuring the Economy

Lecture Notes on Measuring the Economy By: Melcah T. Pascua National Income Accounting The primary measure of the economy’s performance is its annual total output of goods and services or, as it is called, its aggregate output. Aggregate output is labeled Gross Domestic Product (GDP): the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a given year. Three approaches of computing GDP. 1. The Expenditure Approach (Output Approach) Personal Consumption Expenditure (C)……………… xxxxx Gross Private Domestic Investment (Ig)…………. …. xxxxx Government Spending (G)…………………………. ……… xxxxx Net Exports (Xn)…………………………………………. ….. …. xxxxx Gross Domestic Product ………………………………… xxxxxxx (C + Ig + G + Xn) 2. The Income Approach (Allocation or Earnings Approach) Compensation of Employees……………………. …………. xxxxx Rents…………………………………………………. ……………….. xxxxx Interest…………………………………………….. ………………… xxxxx Proprietor’s Income………………………….. ………………… xxxxx Corporate Profits………………………………………………. xxxxx Corporate Income Taxes…………… . xxxxx Dividends………………………………….. xxxxx Undistributed Corporate Profits…. xxxx National Income………………………………………………….. xxxxx Indirect Business Taxes………………………. ……………….. xxxxx Consumption of Fixed Capital………………………………. xxxxx Net Foreign Factor Income Earned in home country………………. …………. xxxxx Gross Domestic Product …………………………………. xxxxx 3. The Industry-Origin Approach (Value-Added Approach) Agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing……. …….. xxxx Agriculture and forestry……………………. …………. xxxx Fishing…………………………………………………….. …… xxxx Industry…………………………………………. …. …………….. xxxx  Mining and quarrying…………………………………. xxx Manufacturing………………………. ……………………. xxxx Construction……………………………. …………………. xxxx Electricity, gas, and water…………………. ……….. xxxx Service sector…………………………………….. ………………. xxxx Transport, storage ……………………. ………………. xxxx Trade and repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles, personal and household goods and communication…………………….. xxxx Financial intermediation Real estate, renting and business activities…. xxxx Public administration and defense; compulsory social security…………………….. xxxx Other services……………………………………… ……. xxxx

Gross Domestic Product ………………………. ……………. Xxxx Other National Accounts: Net Domestic Product (NDP) NDP = GDP – Consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) National Income (NI) NI = NDP – Net foreign factor income – Indirect Business Taxes Personal Income (PI) PI = NI – Corporate Income Taxes –Undistributed Corporate Profits – Social Security contributions + Transfer Payments Disposable Income (DI) = C+S DI = PI – Personal Taxes Where: C = Consumption S = Savings Nominal GDP vs. Real GDP Hypothetical Data of an Economy Year |Units of |Price per |Price |Unadjusted / |Adjusted / | | |Output |unit of |index |Nominal GDP |Real GDP | | | |output | | | | |1 |5 |10 | | | | |2 |7 |20 | | | | |3 |8 |25 | | | | |4 |10 |30 | | | | |5 |11 |28 | | | |

Price of the current year Price Index = X 100 Price of the base year Nominal GDP =Price X Quantity Nominal GDP Real GDP = X 100 Price Index