Health

Why is health education called an emerging profession?
It’s between a profession and a discipline but not quite just one of them.
Name seven characteristics of a profession.
Prolonged training base, requirements for entry, specialized body of knowledge and expertise, standards of practice, autonomy, commitment to serving a significant social value, code of ethics
From the late 19th century to the 1950’s, public health efforts have focused upon what?
Controlling the harm that came from infectious disease.
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1950 to the present – what has the focus been on?
Major chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and strokes, disease that were in large part the result of the way people lived.
What was the name of the first comprehensive national agenda for prevention put out by the federal government in 1980?
Promoting health/preventing disease: objectives for a nation (USDHEW 1980)-
Define rate
a measure of some event, disease, or condition in relation to a unit of population, along with some specification of time.
Death rates are expressed as per
100,000 resident population
What does YPLL stand for and what does it mean?
Years of potential life lost
What does DALYs stand for and what does it take into effect?
Disability adjusted life years
What is the primary role of a health educator?
Create programs that can assist people in working toward better health
What is the ultimate goal of the health educator?
Promote, maintain, and improve individual and community health
The Health Field Concept divided the health field into four elements – name them.
Human biology, environment, life style, and health care organizations
Define primary prevention – give an examples
compromises those preventive measures that forestall the onset of illness of injury during the prepathogenesis period (before the disease process begins) examples- wearing a seatbelt, using rubber gloves when there is a potential for the spread of disease, immunizing against specific disease, exercising, and brushing one’s teeth.
Define secondary prevention – give example
Includes the preventative measures that lead to an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease or an injury to limit disability and prevent more serious pathogenesis. Examples- personal and clinical screenings and exams such as blood cholesterol, blood pressure, and hemocult. Screenings- self breast exam and testicle self-exams.
What is tertiary prevention?
Health education specialists work to retrain, reeducate, and rehabilitate the individual who has already incurred disability, impairment, or dependency.
Describe communicable diseases
Diseases for which biological agents or their products are the cause and that are transmissible from one individual to another.
Describe non-communicable disease-
are those that cannot be transmitted from an infected person to a susceptible, healthly one.
What is the basic premise of the Chain of Infection Model?
a model used to explain the spread of communicable disease from one host to another.
Which model includes agent, host and environment?
Communicable disease model.
What is the model that explains the many factors associated with causing non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease or cancer?
Multicausation disease model
Define epidemiology-
the study of distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specific populations, and the applications of this study control health problems
What is the difference between epidemic, pandemic and endemic?
Epidemic- a unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health related behavior or health related event in a population .
Endemic- occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
Pandemic- .an outbreak over a large geographical area such as a continent
The history of health education as an emerging profession is only a little over one hundred years old but health education has been around since the dawn of human life. True or False
True
How did earliest humans learn about health?
By trial and Error
The oldest written documents related to health care are:
Smith Papryi
the earliest written record concerning public health is?
Code of Hammurabi
Which book of the Bible is considered to be the world’s first written hygienic code?
Leviticus
The first people to put as much emphasis on prevention of disease as on the treatment of disease conditions were the Greeks, Romans or Egyptians?
Greeks
The body of knowledge represents a synthesis of facts, principles, and concepts drawn from a variety of fields. Name four of these fields.
Biological, behavioral, sociological, and health sciences.
What measurement is considered the most comprehensive indicator of patterns of health and disease?
Life expectancey
In Greek mythology who was known as the god of medicine?
Asclepius
Which goddess was given to the power to prevent disease
Hygeia
Which goddess was given the ability to treat disease?
Panacea
The staff and serpent sign of the physician is known as what?
Caduceus was the staff with serpent associated with Asclepius
Who were the Asclepiads?
A brotherhood of man present at the temples who initially claimed descent from Asclepius.
Which Greek physician was credited as being the first epidemiologist and the father of modern medicine?
Hippocrates
The theory that all things are composed of different combinations of particles to small to be seen is known as what?
Atomic Theory
What early society most famous for building sewage systems, water supply systems, baths and other health facilities was who?
The Romans
During what era were criminals dissected alive to improve medical knowledge?
Roman era
Who had little emphasis on cleanliness or hygiene
The early Christians
Entire libraries were burned and knowledge about the human body was seen as sinful during which era?
Greco-Roman era
Which great epidemic during the Middle Ages resulted in the most discrimination and isolation of its victims?
Leprosy
Which epidemic of the Middle Ages resulted in the most deaths?
Bubonic Plauge
What is “water casting” and what does it relate to in today’s medical field?
Water casting is the inspection of a patients urine by a true physician/ urine tests.
A major form of treatment during the Renaissance era for everything from the common cold to tuberculosis was known as what?
Bloodletting
During the Renaissance period medical surgery and dentistry were performed by whom and why?
because they have the best chairs and sharpest instruments available.
During the Renaissance period many women were either disfigured or died of lead poisoning found in what?
23. Many women died of lead poisoning during the Renaissance as a result of lead that was used in make-up that caused holes in form in their cheeks.
What country were health boards first instituted by numerous cities to fight the plague?
Italy
During the Age of Enlightenment – the 1700’s were a period of revolution, growth and industrialization; there was a theory known as the Miasmas Theory. What did this theory state
The vapors or” misasmas,” rising from this rotting refuse could travel through the air for great distances and were believed to result in disease when inhaled
During which period did health education as a profession begin to emerge? 1500’s, 1600’s, 1700’s, 1800’s or 1900’s?
1900’s
Philosophy is defined as a what
statement summarizing the attitudes, principles, beliefs, values, and concepts held by an individual or a group.
The five predominate philosophies of health education are .
behavior change, cognitive-based, decision-making, freeing/functioning, and social change
Eclectic health/ promotion philosophy:
A philosophical approach held by health education specialists that no one philosophy is “right” for all times and circumstances and that the best philosophy involves blending the various philosophical approaches or using different approaches depending on the setting.
The overriding goal of any health education intervention is
the betterment of health for the person or group involved.
A synchronous philosophy
means that the philosophical viewpoint a person holds is applicable to all aspects of life (social, occupational, etc.)

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