HIST

HIST

The division between Roman Patricians and Plebeians was:
between the wealthiest (2 %) and the rest (98%) of the people
Traditional Roman Religion included ancestor worship and:
oligarchs who played roles as priests and politicians
One of the things the Romans borrowed from the Greek Settlers in Southern Italy was:
the derived Roman alphabet
Tiberius Gracchus sought to protect small farmers and protect the pool of citizens from which the army could be drawn by reviving old laws from the Republican days that limited the amount of land a person could hold: for this he was:
murdered
One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world would be:
that Roman leaders who originated from everywhere within the empire would settle far from their place of birth.
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a third Punic War:
was provoked by war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed.
The Augustan system of government:
is known as the early empire of Principate, because Octavian ruled as first citizen.
Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during:
the Principate
During the early Roman Republic, Rome:
expanded slowly and extended the Latin right to many of the cities it conquered.
The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established when:
businessmen who did not become senators wanted privileges
The Romans were the first people to use___ on a massive scale in their buildings:
concrete
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 BCE)
they started a series of ward for control of the western Mediterranean
The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the:
construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities
Roman law consisted of three branches: civil law, natural law, and:
the law of nations
Cicero, one of the most famous stoics of the later republic, believed in all the tenets of Stoicism except:
withdrawal from public life
In the aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar, the second triumvirate took out its revenge on everyone opposed to them; one of the more prominent victims of the second triumvirate was:
Cicero
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including:
hills that increase the defensibility of the city
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 BCO represent:
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey
Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy:
Etruscans, skilled metalworkers, and artists lived there
Prior to Julius Caesar’s appointment as “dictator for Life” only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without the traditional six month term, and he was:
Sulla
The Latin Right of the early Romans guaranteed that:
contracts, marriages, and citizenship were valid across Latium
Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of:
mos maiorum
According to the patria potestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father
had absolute power over his family, up to and including the power of life and death
The myth of the rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasizing
the corruption of the Etruscan morals and government
Those who ruled Rome from 96-180 CE were called the “five good emperors” because:
they were capable administrators who governed successfully.
The epic of Gilgamesh, the dramatic confrontation between Gilgamesh and Enkidu and its aftermath, illustrates:
that the forces of nature cannot be overcome by civilization and death is inevitable
The Egyptians made notable advances in:
measuring time
one of the contributors to the Neolithic revolution was
climate change
the civilization that emerged in ancient Egypt arose
at the same time as that of ancient Sumer
cave paintings, such as those found in Lascaux, Franc, are evidence of:
development of language as well as religious artistic ideas
the law code of Hammurabi
had most of its laws aimed at free commoners
Hammurabi might have been the first ruler in history to
have most of his laws aimed at free commoners
which comparison between Egypt and Mesopotamian civilizations is false?
both enjoyed significant political and cultural interations
Sargon of Akkad is significant because he
subdued Sumer and exerted influence from Ethiopia to the Indus Valley
An individual who successfully led the city states army in battles was
able to acquire prestige and power as a lugal
by becoming a lawgiver, Hammurabi
set a new standard of kingship
the Egyptian system of hieroglyphics was
deciphered by Champollion using the rosetta stone
Jericho, one of the world’s oldest villages, began an impressive building program of structures to protect their grain surplus around
6800 BCE
One of the significant technological achievements of the Sumerians was
the invention of the potters wheel
Although early writing was produced using pointed sticks, Sumerian scribes 3100 BCE advanced writing with durable reeds that
produced wedge like script called cuneiform
Ur-Nammu built the great ziggurat at
UR
to the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization-government, literature, science, and are-were necessarily products of:
city life
The Akkadian rulers of Sargon and Naram-Sin
ruled from cities and kept their empires through conquest and commerce
the switch from subsistence by food gathering to food production
momentus revolution that made stable settlements possible
one of the new approaches to the study of how humans lived before the development of cities and writing is:
evolutionary biology
the Egyptians developed elaborate tombs and burial techniques
to provide the dead with all they would need in the afterlife
The Egyptian book, ___, is an example of “wisdom literature” offering advice to those in public life
the instruction of ptah hotep
historians typically divide ancient Egyptian history into___to facilitate the discussion of Egyptian politics and culture
kingdoms and periods
the earliest cities in Mesopotamia were founded by the
Ubaid people
One of the notable characteristics of civilization was the development of
occupational specialization
The new kingdom, particularly the Eighteenth Dynasty, we marked by
the rise of the wealthy aristocracy
In phoenician’s overseas colonies
power was wielded by a small number of elite families
The Phoenicians greatest contribution to civilization was
their alphabet
The culture of hittites was
strongly militaristic prone to attacks on other peoples
the division of property and wealth in new kingdom
favored pharoah, the officer class and temples of the gods
The mitannians introduced lighter chariots to carry archers, but
their opponents soon copied them and used protective armor
by the fourteenth century BCE, international relations were marked by
diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts and alliances
in the 1100s BCE a wave of destruction swept across the Near East and Mediterranean world as a result of invasions of the
Sea Peoples
two of the foremost hebrew prophets who emphasized the ethical demands God makes on humans were
amos and hosea
By 1500 BCE
huge mycenaen citadels were scattered across some of Greece
Indo-European as used in historical anthropological texts refers to
linguistic and cultural patters found widely distributed from Ireland to India
The Late bronze Age
was an age of superpowers
The system of writing developed by citizens of Ugarit
used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants
In the Book of Judges, the Hebrew people
begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes
Akhenaten represents one of the earliest moves in Western history toward
monotheism in religious practices
The accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included
building roads fr transport and postal service
The minoans
wrote tablets in Linear A to record their economic transactions
A mysterious wave of invasions entered the Mediterranean world and destroyed almost all of the preexisting civilizations
in the second millennium BCE
The Hebrew cult of Yaweh
was significantly advanced by Levites
The eighteenth dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them
Hatshepsut
Philistine power was based in
the Pentapolis
One belief that other Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea
of a Last Day or a Day of Judgment
The division of ancient kingdom of Israel was
provoked by Solomon’s oppressive regime
After Hoplites were introduced in Greece
aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess
In the symposium, Archaic Age Greek aristocrats
enjoyed wine and listened to poetry
because of their successful colonial and trading activities, the Miletus
became extremely extraordinarily wealthy
Homer’s poetry describes a world in which
warrior aristocrats competed for status and power and reinforced social ties through hospitality and gift-giving
Cleisthenes is important in history of Athenian government because he
championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats
Ionians transmitted the Lydian invention of ___ to the Greek world
coinage
Milesian philosophers known as pre-Socratics
looked to physical explanations of the workings of the universe
The sophist claim that man is the measure of all things means
goodness truth and justice are not absolutes but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings
the most militarized of all the poleis in Greece was
Sparta
Spartiates rejected innovation and change and were
forbidden to engage in trade or commerce
The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by
the Athenian fleet
Socrates urged his followers to
understand the principles of proper conduct and one’s actions
Hubris is
excessive pride, which was punished by the gods
One major result of the Persian wars was
the vindication of hoplites in battle and a boost to Athenian and Greek confidence
The origins of Greek democracy can be identified in part in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat
Solon
Holites were organized into formations called a
phalanx
The sodial center and organizational hub of the Greel polis was
the agora
a result of the defeat of the Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse was
the Athenian assembly replaced its democracy with oligarchy
By the sixth century BCE Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin, the most significant of which were located in
anatolia and italy
Greeks made contact with the ___ in the ninth century BCE
Phoenicians
A Greek aristocrat who seized power and ruled outside the traditional constitutional framework was called a
tyrant
Greek sculpture evolved from the rather stiff likenesses resembling Egyptian statuary to a style labeled as
naturalism
What made Greek battle formations and strategy formidable
the training and skill of the hoplites to stay together
Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they
did not speak Greek
Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by
a revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharoahs
a major influence on Epicurus and his school of Epicureanism was
Democritus
Greek rational thought began to separate in the hellenistic world
and scientific inquiry began to be its own field of study
Following SParta’s victory in the Peloponnesian War
Sparta alienated the other Greek cities by trying to dominate them
With the expansion of population in the hellenistic world and the creation of larger cities
the average Greek male was less connected to his community and had little or no stake in society
With the expansion of the population of the hellenistic world
Alexanders successors established some 200 cities
macedonian military reforms under Philip II most closely resemble earlier reforms undertaken by
Thebes
Alexander sought to fuse his Greco-Macedonian empire with Persia by
arranging for hundreds of his officers to marry persian noblewomen
Aristarchus of Samos was unusual among Hellenistic astronomers because
he believed that the earth revolves around the sun
Central to the skeptic worldview is the idea that
one must suspend judgment concerning everything
after the Corinthian War, Sparta
was defeated by Thebes, under the leadership of Epaminodas
To highlight their authority and status in the former Persian Empire, Seleucid rulers
used terms in proclamations reminiscent of earlier Mesopotamian rulers
After a period of instability,___was finally able to establish rule over the homeland of Alexander’s empire-Macedonia and Greece
Antigonus
The___believed that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good
stoics
The aetolia and Achaesn leagues differed fromprevious Greek attempts at political organization between poleis because
they represented a real political unification, with some centralization of government functions
The most important cultural center in the Hellenistic world was
Alexandria
Alexander decided to make Egypt the capital of his empire
after he was proclaimed the son of ammon by the sun god’s oracle
in invading Persia, Alexander began to follow the example of Cyrus the Great and
offered amnesty to cities that surrendered and no mercy to those that did not
the beginning of the end of Alexanders conquests was his inability to fully subdue
Afghanistan
Herophilus of Chalcedon was an innovative___in the ancient hellenistic world
anatomist
during the economic decline of Greece in the fourth century BCE
former soldiers often worked as mercenaries who disrupted the household based culture of the Greek poleis
the chief characteristics of hellenistic architecture were
grandeur and ornamentation
Philip of MAcedonia built his power base north of Greece partially by
multiple alliance marriages
why did autocratic rulers in the hellenistic world encourage manufacturing industries
manufacturing increased international trade revenues and therefore taxation and tariffs
whereas plato conceived of politics as a means toward living the good life, Aristotle regarded politics as
an end in iteself