History 101 western civilization, ch. 1 -3

History 101 western civilization, ch. 1 -3

Gilamesh
oldest epic in the world about the king of Urek. A babolonian City and his struggles and awakenings to the gods and people. (hercules)
Nile River
longest river in the world, 4200 miles
What is the importance of the Nile River
overflows annually and deposits a rich layer of soil over the River Valley, thus compensating for the lack of rain and prevents soil exhaustion
Sumerian Acheivements
gave us a number system, writing system called the cuneiform, wheeled carts called ziggurats, irrrigation canals, the potters wheel & plow, Key to this culture is water
Hieroglyphics
Name means sacred carvings, Egyptian form of writing
Food Production
began in southwest asia around 8000 bce, was the norm by 6000 bce,but did not give way in Europe until 2500 bce
2 important technologies that helped food production
metallurgy & the plow
Ma at
means everything in order as established by the gods
Stonehenge
megalith built in England between 3100-1100 bce, circle of stones
Mesopatamia
Southwest Asia, means land between two waters
Amorites
troublesome nomads, thought to be the cause of the downfall of Ur, very large in stature. amorite & canaanite used interchangebly
Hyksos Influence
nomadic group that invaded Egypt and ruled in the north from 1640 to 1570 BCE. Their dominance was based on their use of horses, chariots, and bronze technology
King Mentuhotep II
had warlike tribes in nubia (modern sudan)
Hyksos
meaning rulers of foreign land, A group of nomadic invaders from southwest asia who ruled egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C.
Chariot Warfare
New style of warfare introduced by Hyksos. Egyptians eventually adopt it and retake their nation.
Egyptian Temples
Religious buildings used for worship and the collection of payments from both the government and worshipers.home of the gods and usually in the center of the village
Nubia
A large African kingdom to the south of Egypt, homeland of africas earliest black culture, harsh climate (northern Sudan) located on the narrow banks of the nile
Canaanites
-Inhabited Syria and Palestin, , First people to settle Phoenicia
Hatshepsut
1st female ruler. When her husband Tuthmosis II died, she declared herself female king rather than give it to her son Tuthmosis III. Statues and paintings often show her with beard to symbolize power. She expanded trade
Akhenaten
14th century Egyptian pharaoh that created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun disk and the idea of monotheism, called one of the most profound leaders of Egypt.
Neolithic Age
lasting from 5000 to 3000 BC and is known as the stone age.
What are the 5 features of the Neolithic Age
Dev. agriculture, domestication of animals, superior tools for grinding and polishing, advances in pottery & weaving, invention of the axe
International Bronze Age
lasting from 1500-550 BCE called the Age of Empires
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, reworked the chariot and gave the world a technique of smelting metals
Kassites
Known for est. second Babylonian dynasty, came from Zagros, horse was their sacred animal, invented boundary stone which served as a record of a grant land by the king to favored people, King was Kudurru
Minoan Development
Around 3000 BC They built an advanced society on Crete and were known to be the best shipbuilders and had advanced Navy, Trade was at the heart of their survival. capital city Knossos
Mycenaean
2000 BC Group of people who invaded Greece and took over the island of Crete, brought with them pottery and architecture
Characteristics of Minoan Culture
peace, loving,. matriarchal society
Ugarit
City located in western Syria and is known for being the location of a huge discovery of cuneiform tablets, many libriaries, had the worlds oldest alphabet
The iliad
An epic poem written by Homer which retells the Trojan War – it is about a Mycenaean king Agamemnon who kills the Trojan hero Hector.
What are some contributions of the Phoenicians
Mathematics, paper money, over seas naval vessels made of cedar. purple dye ,our alphabet, transported glass
Tiglath-Pileser
Founder of the second Assyrian Empire. King who was remembered for subdividing his empire into provinces and appt tax collectors, forced assyrian law and deported people to remote locations. Used highly skilled horsemen(1st calvary unit)
Nebuchadnezzar
King ruled from 605-562, known for restoring old monuments, improved canals and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, built 10 mile wall around the city with elaborate entry called the Isahtar gate. Captured and distroyed Jerusalem, made inhabitants of jerusalem prisoners
Ishtar Gate
one of the 8 gates of the inner city of Babylon, was built by Nebuchadnezzar II. 47 feet tall and goes 45 feet deep. decorated with brick releif in tiers of dragons and bulls
Babylonian astronomers
recorded movements of the stars,planets & moon. kept logs, could predict eclipses of moon, gave names to constellations & the zodiac
Hebrews
Israelites who originated from Cannan at the end of the late bronze age
Accomplishments of Solomon
known for his wisdom, wealth, and writings. Son of David and Bathsheba. died after 40 years as ruler of Israel
King David
Succeded Saul and built kindom w/ jerusalem after defeating the philistines
Hebrew Prophets
Elijah led initial movement, worship of yahweh, montheistic.
Women in Judaism
emphasis on purity, saw them as dirty, made religious roll more restricted, due to childbirth & menstruation they were unclean.,
Hebrews and philistines
at war against each other for mediterannean coastal plain in Cannan, 1200 BC
Greek Dark Ages
1100-800 BC, culture of greece dwindled,great trading empire was destroyed, artistic elements portray simple geometrical designs & patterns.
Polis
greek city-state
Agora
centralized are for informas, discussions & a market in a polis
Greek coinage
replaced the barter as a medium of exchange. each polis had its own emblem on their own
Hoplites
greek millitary, existed of those who could afford their own weapons
hoplon
sheild which provided protection in the front
phalanx
millitary formation favored by hoplites, covered their back sides. shoulder to shoulder, 8 men deep, moved in unison
Panhellenic games
collective name for 4 diff sports festivals held in greece. no womwn, no non-greeks, performed in the nude,
Spartan Politics
This polis ruled as an oligarchy
oligarchy
govt of only a few people rather than a whole community
Athens Politics
This polis ruled as a democracy, first democracy in an ancient world
democracy
form of govt where citizens choose their leaders and gov. institutions.
Spartan Military
boys trained to be soldiers and left home at 7 yrs old, girls trained to be wives and mothers of soldiers- Reputation as the most ferocious fighting force in all of greece.
Greek slaves
there were more of these than free people in ancient greece. not allowed to use own name they were property
Solon
wealthy merchant who served in the athenian Govt. cancelled debtand even helped instititute court reform. remembered as a Wise lawgiver
Peisistratus
Seized power as a tyrant in 546 bc, divided the estates of many nobles into small plots and distributed them to the poor farmers
Cleisthenes
elected in 508, greatly advanced democracy, divided attica into townships called demes, every 10 demes made up a tribe, all social classes in each tribe
Cyrus the great
Persian king conquered the Medes, a military genious & organizer
zoroastrianism
monotheistic religion, official religion of Persian empire
Zoraster
Persian prophet who at 30 believed he had seen visions of god
Satrapies
townskeepers, established by Cyrus the great, 20 total,reported to Cyrus and no one else
Peloponnesian War
Spartans invaded Attica in hopes of defeating Athenian forces. the Athenians eventually overthrew the spartan tyrant and restored democracy. 431-404 BC
Greek women
Marry early, wives supervised household, children and dealt with MIL, weaved cloth, rarely went out in public
Greek Religion
Worshipped many Gods, No supreme God
Sophists
professional teachers of rhetoric, philosophy and other subjects charged for their teaching
Socrates
known as the 1st great Philospher of Greece, condemned to death in 399 for “corrupting minds of youth”
Plato
pupil of Socrates, witnessed his death opened The Academy in Athens, famous dialogue is The Republic
Aristotle
Famous student of Plato