History 101: World Civilization (Exam 1)

Hierocracy
rule by priest
Altamira
Famous upper paleolithic cave paintings discovered in Spain
Code of Hammrabi
The upper level was treated better than the lower level
Consisted the first law giver
Each law was written down and consisted of 282 total
Laws had intense punishment (EX: If caught stealing that person must be sentenced to death)
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Lascaux
Famous paleolithic cave painting discovered in France by an 18 year old boy named Marcel Ravidat
Cuneiform
Latin for cuneus (wedge shaped characters)
Tablets used as paper to tell stories
Bone or reed as stylus
Babylonia
Ruled by Hammurabi
3 purpose: Make Bablyonia secure, secure Mesopotamia (capital of Bablyonia), make Babylonia a place in history
Combined semitic and sumer ruler roles
State-controlled economy
Pre-literature (pre-historic)
No rural setting
No written history
Historic (literate)
Written history
Began in the Nile (civilization)
Mesopotamia
Each city-state had their own gods and goddess
Greek for “between two rivers”: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq
River created rich agricultural soil in the delta region and added crop surpluses.
Sumerians lived there
Neolithic
New Stone Age (3000 BC)
Produced their own food (farming)
Urbanization
Established religion
Paleolithic
Old Stone Age (8000 BC)
Discovered fire
Believed in animistic (spirit animals) Hunter gathers
Cave paintings
Nomads, spoken language
Bronze Age
1000 BC
Replaced Stone Age
Produced weapons and tools
EX: wheel
Iron Age
1200 BC
Replaced the Bronze Age
Produced weapons and tools
Made weapons tougher and sharper
Sumer (south)
5000 BC Neolithic people
Sumerians (linguistic language)
In Mesopotamia
Innovations included: writing, astronomy, architecture, math, irrigation, laws
Developed the 1st calender and writing
Akkad (north)
Took over Sumer in 2350 BC
Semitic nomads
Sargon 1 was the first ruler of the emperor
Brought unity/dynasty
Ziggurats
Sumerians religious monument that was created for their gods
128 ft tall only priest were allowed inside
Daughters as prostitutes
Function: 1st creation story was recorded, story of Moses, reflects on weather, no afterlife; only gods and mortals went to the underground
Sumerian Religion
Religion was pessimistic (negative)
Religion was polytheistic (more than one god)
Believed that every god was anthropomorphic (human characteristic)
Only priest were literate and could talk to gods
Reflected on the wheather (EX: Heavy rain and thunder storm = angry gods)
Utnapishtim
Babylonian Noah
Marduk
Babylonian God
Ishtar
Goddess of fertility
Shamash
God of sun and justice
Enlil
God of wind and storm
Ensi
Temperol ruler of the Sumerian city-state
Lugal
Title for king (war leader)
Gilgamesh
Legendary king who saved Sumer and Babylonians from a flood
Patesi
Priest governed by a priest
Nile River
Herodotus “gift from the Nile”
Located in Egypt which is very dry, they got water from the Nile River
Starts at the highlands of Lake Victoria
Created canals, dams, irrigation ditches to control the river waters.
Lower Egypt (Northern)
King wore a red crown
Materials found: gold, silver and copper
“The Red Land” desert, protected Egypt from enemies
Upper Egypt
White Crown
King Menes conquered Lower Egypt and unified them
The Black Land; fertile soil, farming areas, produced crops, wheat, cereal
Hyksos
Apart of the 15th and 16th dynasty
Invaded Egypt and settled in the Nile
Introduced new warrior tacts: horse and chariot, battle axes, bows
Theocracy
A system of gov. where a priest rules by a God of a god`
Vizier
A person close to the pharaoh that helps advise them and makes sure everyone is doing their job
Nomes
Similar to states of countries
Upper Egypt 22 Nomes
Lower Egypg 20 Nomes
King Menes unified both Lower and Upper
Nomarch
The gov. of a nome
Osiris
The god of the underworld
Amon-Re
Sun god
Zoomorphic
Is the shaping f something in animal form
Ex:Egyptian gods as hybrid
Holy Spirit as a dove
Manetho
An historian and priest who wrote the History of Egypt
Imhotep
Was a famous architect who designed the step pyramid
Name means “the onwe who comes in peace, is with peace”
Stepped Pyramid
Built for King Djoser
Consist of 6 steps and is 200 ft high
Created by Imhotep
Khufu
Was the 2nd King of the 4th Dynasty
Created the Pyramid of Giza which is one of the 7th wonders of the World
Khafre
6th dynasty King
CCreeated the 2nd Pyramid of Giza
Menkaure
Famous for his pyramid tomb at Giza
Smallest of 3 pyramids of Giza
Ahmose
Founder of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt
Thutmose III
King of Egypt who conquered Syria and much of the Euphrates Valley and brought great wealth to Egypt.
Akhetaton
King of Egypt (1372-1355) who rejected the old gods and initiated a monotheistic worship of the sun-god Aten.
Henotheism
is the belief in and worship of a single God while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped
Tutankhamon
18th dynasty: Most famous pharaoh who took throne at 6 and ruled for 11 years
Mysteriously killed
Tomb discovered by Howard Carter in 1922
Hatshepsut
Thutmose III wife
During the 18th dynasty
Estaablished the trade networks that were destroyed by the Hyksos
Akhnaton
Father of King Tut
Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and ruled for 17 years.
construction of a new capital city which he called Amarna and he dedicated it to the sun.
abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Atens
Negertiti
wife of Akhnaton
15 when married
One of the most influential queens. Paintings show here conducting religious ceremonies with Akhenaten as an equal.
Created their own religon worshiping the sun god
Ramses II
Took throne at age 20 and ruled for 66 years
Ramses the Great for his contributions to Egypt, war campaigns to the Mediterranean and into Nubia, as well as his construction projects, such as cities, temples and tombs.
Hattusas
the capital of the ancient Hittite empire in Asia Minor
Suppiluliumas
king of the Hittites, founder of the Hittite empire
Canaan
Biblical name in Palestine
Any land of promise
Diaspora
Jews living outside Israel
Pentateuch
the first five books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Babyblonian Captivity
is the period in Jewish history during which a number of Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
Cyrus
king of Persia
founder of the Persian empire.

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