History 102 – Exam 1

Fronde
A series of revolts by French nobles against the authority of Louis XIV, Cardinal Jules Mazarin, and Anne of Austria triggered by objections to high taxes and increasing royal power. Fronde was the name of a child slingshot game.
Estates
The representative assemblies of Brandenburg, Prussia, Cleves, and Mark. Frederick William, the “Great Elector”, reduced the power of the Estates by force, collected taxes, and built his own government.
Puritans
Protestants who wanted to reform the Church of England. Became influential members of Parliament.
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Levellers
Radical Protestants against Cromwell during the English Civil Wars who wanted to equalize social differences.
Glorious Revolution
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Hermetic Doctrine
Notion popular in the 16th and 17th centuries that all matter contains the divine spirit
Copernican Revolution
The change from an earth-centered to a sun-centered universe initiated by Copernicus in the 16th century. Acceptance of Heliocentric Theory.
Cartesian Dualism
René Descartes’ principle of the separation of mind and matter (and mind and body) that enabled scientists to view matter as something separate from themselves that could be investigated by reason
Scientific Revolution
a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs. Gave way to the Enlightenment.
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one country from becoming too strong and dominating the others
Royal Absolutism
the king has absolute power and authority
Enclosures
One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners for commerce on land that was formerly worked by village farmers.
Triangle of Trade
Europe sent fine goods to Africa, which sent slaves to North America, which sent raw material to Europe
Cottage Industry
manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the industrial revolution
Cult of Sensibility
The 18th century emphasis on emotion and nature forwarded by several European artists and authors
Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Classical Style
A 17th/18th century cultural style emphasizing restraint and balance, following models from ancient Greece and Rome
Sumptuary Laws
these regulated the dress of different classes forbidding people from wearing clothes of their social superiors
Roundheads
Puritan supporters of Parliament and Oliver Cromwell, fighting the English Civil War from 1642-1649
Constitutionalism
Government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers.
Neoplatonism
Views based on the ideas of Plato that one should search beyond appearances for true knowledge; truth about both nature and God could be found in abstract reasoning and be best expressed by mathematics.
Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Heliocentric Model
A representation of the relationship between the Sun and planets in which the planets revolve around the Sun. Copernicus proposed the model.
Great Chain of Being
Medieval world view. There are chains and classes of elements which link the spiritual and earthy world together, includes God, angles, man, animals, plants and minersals
Philosophes
French Enlightenment thinkers. Most famous for writing “Encyclopedia”, a handbook for Enlightenment ideas, etided be Denis Diderot. French term for philosophers.
Parlements
the 13 sovereign courts in the French judicial system that signed royal decrees
Agricultural Revolution
The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms that produced crops for commerce
Seven Years War
Fought between France/Russia and Prussia- Frederick kept fighting against heavy odds and was saved when Peter III took Russian throne and called off the war.
Grand Tour
An educational travel taken by the wealthy to certain cities and sites, particularly during the 17th/18th centuries
Rococo
elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid 1700s by deemphasized size and emphasized and featuring fancy designs in the shape of leaves, shells, and scrolls
Enlightened Absolutism
the phenomenon by which European rulers embraced many of the reforms set forth by the philosophes
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Physiocrats
French economic reformers who believed the primary role of government was to protect property, economic reformers who believed mercantilist policies and labor regulation by government and guilds hampered expansion of trade and agriculture; rejected mercantilism
Diplomatic Revolution
Major reversal of diplomatic alliances. Great Britain reversed its alliance with Austria and forged a relationship with Prussia, causing France to join with Austria and Russia to check Prussian power during the Seven Years War.
Cardinal Richelieu
Principal minister to Louis XIII. He used his strong influence over Louis XIII to insure the French monarchy as the embodiment of France.
Jean Baptiste Colbert
financial minister for Louis XIV, furthered prosperity by promoting good farming methods, building roads and canals (infrastructure), promoted existing industries with tariffs, aided new industries with subsidies, and increased mercantilism by establishing French trading posts in India and North American colonies
King Louis XIV
French king known as the Sun King. Reigned from 1643 to 1715; built the palace of Versailles, absolute monarch
Frederick William I
Frederick William I, “the Soldiers’ King” (r. 1713-1740), was the one who truly established Prussian absolutism and gave it a unique character. It was he who created the best army in Europe, for its size, and it was he who infused strict military values into whole society. Frederick William’s attachment to the army and military life was intensely emotional. He had built a first-rate army, although he had third-rate resources. The standing army increased from thirty-eight thousand to eighty-three thousand during his reign. Prussia, twelfth in population, had the fourth largest army by 1740. Only the much more populace states of France, Russia, and Austria had larger forces. Moreover, soldier for soldier; the Prussian army became the best in Europe, astonishing foreign observers with its precision, skill, and discipline. For the next two hundred years, Prussia and then Prussianized Germany would usually win the crucial military battles.
King Louis XVI
absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution. After yielding power to the revolutionary National Assembly, he was overthrown when the French Republic was declared and then executed, along with his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, during the Reign of Terror.
King James I
Ruler of Scotland who also took control of England after Elizabeth’s death from 1603 to 1625. He chartered the Virginia Company of London, was frequently conflicted with Parliament, and faced the Gunpowder Plot.
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
William and Mary
Prostestant, married William of Orange ruler of Netherlands and Protestant champion of Europe, invited by Parilament to assume the throne, James II offered no resistence and fled to France
King George I
King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1727. Founder of the Hanoverian dynasty, he was the first English monarch whose claim to reign depended upon an act of Parliament.
King George II
king of england during the french and indian war. Georgia colony.
Nicholas Copernicus
He believed in a heliocentric, or sun-centered, conception of the universe. He argued that the Sun was at the center of the universe. The planets revolved around the sun.
Johannes Kepler
German Astronomer who discovered that the paths of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather that circular. planetary motion
Frances Bacon
rejected Aristotle’s scientific assumptions, stressed experimentation/observation, wanted to make science life better by practical techno., argued that truth isn’t known at the beginning of an inquiry but is at the end
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people’s liberty.
Diderot
French philosopher from 1713-84 who composed a 28 volume encyclopedia that included and spread many Enlightenment ideas
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter’s goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
Joseph II of Austria
Son of Maria Theresa; 1) Made nobles pay taxes and ended serfdom 2) Allowed other religions 3) Everyone must speak German 4) Every group found reason to hate him 5) Had secret police but died of stress
King Henry IV
young German leader; clashed with Pope Gregory VII [struggle known as Investiture Controversy]
Cardinal Jules Mazarin
Prime minister of France. Worked to increase France’s power. Many people hated him because of his harsh policies. This led to the Fronde.
King Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War (1710-1774)
Frederick II of Prussia
had Voltaire live at court; army of 200,000 men; king is servant; abolished use of torture; limited freedom of speech to the press; religious toleration; kept serfdom
Peter The Great
This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Charles II
This was the king that took the throne during the Restoration and peacefully had agreements with the Parliament until he made secret agreements with Louis XIV to relax the laws against the English Catholics and eventually a Catholic became the next king
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a “social contract” in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Robert Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
Galileo
This scientist formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Rene Descartes
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle “i think therefore i am”; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
Voltaire
Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
Olaudah Equiano
(1745-1797) African who was sold into slavery and bought his way out-kidnapped as a boy (age 11) from his home he was sold into slavery and sold amongst slave traders many times-he served in the Seven Years’ War as a captain’s boy and was then sold to a slave trader where he went to the Caribbean-from there a white colonist bought him and he eventually bought his way out of slavery-he went to England to live and published a book about slavery and his experiences-his message was widespread and helped to inspire the abolition of slavery
Maria Theresa of Austria
1740-1780, woud co-rule Austria after 1765 alongside her son James II, Hated enlightenment culture (though she did improve education for the military’s sake).
Scientific revolution
In the history of science, the scientific revolution was a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences led to a rejection of doctrines that had prevailed starting in Ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of modern science.[1] According to a majority of scholars, the scientific revolution began with the publication of two works that changed the course of science in 1543 and continued through the late 17th century: Nicolaus Copernicus’s De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius’s De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human body).
The science of the late renaissance was significant in establishing a base for modern science. The scientist J. D. Bernal stated that “the renaissance enabled a scientific revolution which let scholars look at the world in a different light. Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge”. Despite some challenges to Roman Catholic dogma, however, many notable figures of the scientific revolution—Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, and even Galileo—remained devout in their faith, and it can be argued that this revolution of science coincided with the religious revolution of the Protestant Reformation.

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