History 104 since 1877

History 104 since 1877

18th Amendment
federal prohibition , Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
gave African American men the right to vote
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Restoration
restored the South to the Union
Redemption
southern democrats’ term for their return to power in the south in the 1870s
Agribusiness
A general term for large-scale, mechanized industrial agriculture that is controlled by corporate interests
Dawes Severalty Act 1887
assimilate the Indians; dissolved tribes; stipulated citizenship in 25 years; sold Indian land
Homestead Act 1862
enabled white men and unmarried women to claim free or inexpensive land on the frontier
Morrill Act 1862
provided a grant of public lands to states for support of education
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act 1883
Reformed the spoils system, calling for government appointments to be made based on merit rather than politics
Grange
the Patrons of Husbandry – a social and educational organization through which farmers attempted to combat the power of the railroads in the late 19th century
The Farmers Alliance
group formed in Texas in the late 1870s in order to break the grip of the railroads and manufacturers through cooperative buying and selling, weakened itself by excluding blacks and landless tenant farmers
Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Plessy vs. Ferguson
This case established the “separate but equal” doctrine.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie’s doctrine calling for the wealthy to share their riches for the betterment of society
Gilded Age
1870s – 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Jim Crow
Term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s
Horizontal Integration
The merging of companies that make similar products.
Vertical Integration
practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products
“White Man’s Burden”
Idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized.
Initiative
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
Referendum
The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
Recall
the act of removing an official by petition
Direct Primary
a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
Muckraking
the exposure of scandal (especially about public figures)
Prohibition
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe’s statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Great Migration
Movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Fourteen Points
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I
Red Scare
a period of general fear of communists
Welfare Capitalism
when companies provide incentives to build better relationships with employees; health insurance, safety standards, buy stock in the company.
Reed-Johnson National Origins Act of 1924
restrictive quota system for new immigration (3%)
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
“New Negro”
spirit of black racial pride and militancy that set a younger generation of African American artists and civil rights leaders apart from their predecessors
Modernity
term referring to industrial society or various aspects of modern life
League of Women Voters
An organization set up to educate women about politics and voting.
$5 day
program initiated by Henry ford to decrease worker turnover and increase demand for his products
Eugenics
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their government war bonuses in cash
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt’s precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state’s intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
Emergency Banking Act
gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
National Industrial Recovery Act
(FDR) A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
Defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes between employees and employers.
First New Deal
The “First New Deal” of 1933 was aimed at short-term recovery programs for all groups. The Roosevelt administration promoted or implemented banking reform laws, emergency relief programs, work relief programs, agricultural programs, and industrial reform (the NRA), a federal welfare state, as well as the end of the gold standard and prohibition.
Second New Deal
This caused more social welfare, benefits, stricter control over business, stronger support for unions, and higher taxes on the rich.
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops
Public Works Administration
New Deal organization that contracted private firms to hire millions of people to build bridges, post offices, highways, and other public work projects
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Works Progress Administration
agency meant to provide employment on useful projects such as public buildings, bridges and roads
Fair Labor Standards Act
Sets minimum wage, requires over-time pay for time worked over 40 hours, and restricts the employment of minors.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
a federation of North American industrial unions that merged with the American Federation of Labor in 1955
Federal Writer’s Project
Program that employed writers, created travel guides, oral histories and American Folklore
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 – Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development. repealed Dawes act
Andrew Johnson
17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln’s assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached
“Boss” Tweed
a disgraced American politician who was convicted for stealing millions of dollars from New York City taxpayers through political corruption; head of Tammany Hall.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, “Square Deal,” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycare, and child care classes. First women to win Nobel Peace Prize
Al Smith
unsafe and unhealthy working conditions
Jacob Riis
wrote how the other half lives, wrote about conditions for recent immigrants
Upton Sinclair
food safety, California gubernatorial candidate who proposed old age pensions
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women’s suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
Dorothea Lange
United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)