History 111 Ch. 1-4

History 111 Ch. 1-4

Upper Egypt
The southern region of ancient Egypt, named so because it was located upriver with the Nile’s flow. Cairo to Sudan.
Lower Egypt
The northern region of ancient Egypt, named so because it was located downriver with the Nile’s flow.
Early Hominids
human like australopithecines started 3 to 4 millions years ago. Oldest fossils found in Great Rift Valley (Africa) 1950s to 1960s lucy – greatest ever find
Sumerians
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
When were most Pyramids built?
During the Old Kingdom. Around 2700 B.C.E.
Mummification
a process of embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from decaying
Cambyses, Darius
Successors of Cyrus.
Nebuchadnezzar II
Babylon king who conquored the South Kingdom of Israel and destroyed Jerusalem in 586-587 BCE (6th century) and ruled for about 40-50 years – he was conquored by King Cyrus of Egypt
Jewish Religion
Live in covenant with God’s law, God’s chosen people, waiting for savior
Capital of Kingdom of Judah?
Jerusalem
Hinduism vs. Buddhism
HINDUISM = reincarnation BUDDHISM = meditation, reach nirvana through good karma, no individual spirit, not multiple Gods.
Language of Vedas
Sanskrit
Founder of Buddhism
Siddhartha Guatama
Asoka’s Pillars
Pilgrim routes to holy places, and to commemorate the life of Buddha.
Middle Path
Buddhist path of moderation, avoidance of extremes of vulgar materialism or a life of self-torture
Chinese River Valleys
Yellow River and Yangtze River
The Dao
The creative rhythm of the universe, or “the way”.
Longest Chinese Dynasty
Chou.. Zhou
Ying and Yang
Chinese symbol that means complementary opposites; dark and happy
Confucius
chinese philosphere and teacher; his belifs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life
Han Dynasty
A line of rulers from the same family, imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
Founder of Han Dynasty
Liu Bang
Greek Geography
An enormously divisive force in Greek life because the rugged terrain (Mountainous, rugged land surrounded by sea, Peninsula & Islands, few rivers or farmland, but good harbors) led to political fragmentation. Geographical Isolation = City States (culturally their own identity): No Central Government.
zeus
(Greek mythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology
archimedes
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
Sparta
The largest ancient Greek city-state, located on the southern Peloponnesus
Mycenaean Civilizations
Mainland Greeks from the Bronze Ages, greatly influenced by the Minoans; randomly wealthy families
Homer
Ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Cleisthenes
Made athenian assembly-law making body, granted some citizenship to some imms. and former slaves. set-up council of 500, introduced Ostracism
Polis
Form of government in which power is centralized into a local city-state.
Spartan Society
– Strong military
– Everyone educated in military
– Very vicious
– First paid military
* Located in Peloponnesus
Qin Dynasty
Lasted 15 years, they were Legalists,believed in reward and punishment, Great rulers; still needed help
siddhartha
Siddhartha Gautama, a prince from Sakya, also known as Sakyamuni, Tathagata, Buddha. The Buddha for our era. Achieves enlightenment through his own reflective and meditative efforts.
100,000 B.C.E.
Humans had evolved in africa. Hominids, austilopithica, ect.
Hoplites
Heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens
School of Greece
Nickname of Athens, by Pericles
Zhou
Chinese dynasty that was the foundation of Chinese thought formed during this period: Confucianism, Daoism, Zhou Classics. Mandate of Heaven. Esclisped Shang. Nomadic invaded.