treaty of tordesillas
June 7, 1494), agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th-century voyagers.
Population of New World at end of 15th century
How England first attempted to engage Spain in the New World
Land and labor situation in the New World
Off the coast of Gravelines, France, Spain’s so-called “Invincible Armada” is defeated by an English naval force under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake. After eight hours of furious fighting, a change in wind direction prompted the Spanish to break off from the battle and retreat toward the North Sea. Its hopes of invasion crushed, the remnants of the Spanish Armada began a long and difficult journey back to Spain.
Roanoke. The Croatan (also spelled Croatoan) were a small Native American group living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina. They may have been a branch of the larger Roanoke people or allied with them.
Triple G’s as motivation for settlement
God, Gold, Glory
founding of the Carolina’s
Puritan view of the Church of England
The Church of England set out to break away from the Catholic Church and introduce reforms in a new protestant religion. The Puritans however believed that the newly founded church still held too many of the catholic churches remnants.
seperating and non-seperating puritans
Most Puritans were “non-separating Puritans”, meaning they did not advocate setting up separate congregations distinct from the Church of England; a small minority of Puritans were “separating Puritans” who advocated setting up congregations outside the Church.
Henry VIII’s break with Rome and consequences
In the Roman Catholic Church, a declaration by church authorities that those who say certain prayers or do good deeds will have some or all of their punishment in purgatory remitted.
relationship between protestants, roman catholics, calvinists, puritans
T.U.L.I.P- five point Calvinism
Basically, Calvinism is known by an acronym: T.U.L.I.P.
Total Depravity (also known as Total Inability and Original Sin)
Limited Atonement (also known as Particular Atonement)
Perseverance of the Saints (also known as Once Saved Always Saved)
The putnams and the Porters of Salem, Mass.
George Whitefield (27 December [O.S. 16 December] 1714 – 30 September 1770), also known as George Whitfield, was an English Anglican cleric who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain and, especially, in the American colonies.
James Edward Oglethorpe was a British general, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia.
Charles II was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.
Johann Tetzel, OP was a Roman Catholic German, Dominican friar and preacher. In addition, he was a Grand Inquisitor of Heresy to Poland, and later became the Grand Commissioner for indulgences in Germany.
The Yongle Emperor, personal name Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty.
William Bradford was an English Separatist West Riding of Yorkshire and later moved to Leiden, Holland and helped found the Plymouth Colony. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact while aboard the Mayflower in 1620.
Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649 for treason.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Sir Humphrey Gilbert of Devon in England was a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh, and cousin of Sir Richard Grenville.
John Winthrop was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in what is now New England after Plymouth Colony.
Zheng He, formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China’s early Ming dynasty.
Rowan Gavin Paton Menzies is a British author and retired submarine lieutenant-commander who has written books promoting claims that the Chinese sailed to America before Columbus.
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism,
John White, the governor of the Roanoke Island colony in present-day North Carolina, returns from a supply-trip to England to find the settlement deserted. White and his men found no trace of the 100 or so colonists he left behind, and there was no sign of violence.
Jonathan Edwards was a revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Like most of the Puritans, he held to the Reformed theology.
Ma Huan, courtesy name Chung-dao 宗道, pen name Mountain-woodcutter, was a Chinese voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Walter Raleigh was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy, and explorer. He was cousin to Sir Richard Grenville and younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Virginia Dare was born on August 18, 1587 at Roanoke Island in colonial Virginia (present-day North Carolina). Virginia Dare was the first English-born child in the Americas. She was the daughter of Ananias Dare and Eleanor Dare and the granddaughter of Governor John White.