History 121 Exam 1

Primary sources
Original documents/objects created during the time you’re trying to find out about — no interpretation.

Types: Written, visual, video footage

Examples: Newspapers, personal diaries/journals, photographs, legal documents, immigration records, port records, company records, tax records, court records, marriages, births, deaths, wills

Secondary sources
Story/interpretations of the past which is based on primary sources; Created to tell about the history of something; Based on the interpretation of primary sources or other secondary sources

Examples: Textbooks, lectures, documentaries

Abraham Lincoln
-Republican presidential candidate in the election of 1860.
-Won election of 1860.
-Confederate attacked Fort Sumpter and Lincoln declared war in April 1861.
-When the Civil War began, Lincoln aimed to protect the Union’s border states from succession. Contrabands began seeing the Union Army as an army of liberation — Lincoln did not want this. He made a policy to return contrabands to their southern owners, which was very unpopular in the North.
-The North was unhappy with the length of the war, and it began to push to make the war about freeing slaves rather than protecting the union. Lincoln gave the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. It was a war aid, and NOT about immediately ending slavery. Instead, it outlawed slavery only in states that were rebelling against the union (but not border states) — Made the Union Army an army of liberation.
-Developed the 10% plan for reconstruction in early 1865. Individuals would become US citizens again by taking an oath to loyalty and swearing to support emancipation. They would get amnesty to crimes committed during the war. This was not applicable to confederate leaders. Once 10% of a former confederate state has taken this oath, they can write a new state constitution and be readmitted into the Union.
-Assassinated less than 2 weeks after the Civil War ended.
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Confederate States of America
-Formed by 7 states that seceded from the Union between December 1860 and March 1861, in the period before Lincoln was inaugurated.
-Attacked Fort Sumpter in April of 1861, causing Lincoln to declare war. 4 more states then secededed
-Advantages during the war: South was on the “defense”, which meant that much fighting was done on familiar Southern soil, and that they only had to “hold out” and wait for the North to give up (which caused the war to be long); Better military talent
-Runaway slaves that would cross the Union line and set up camp.
-Contrabands saw the Union Army as an army of liberation; They think the Union Army is going to free them (although this wasn’t the Union’s original plan) because that is what their owners feared.
-Lincoln doesn’t want Union Army to be an army of liberation; To him, the war is about protecting more Union states from secession; Creates a policy of returning contraband to their Southern owners, which is very unpopular in the North.
Ten Percent Plan
Before the war ended (early 1865), Lincoln developed the 10% plan for reconstruction:
-Individuals can become US citizens again by taking an oath to loyalty and swearing to support emancipation; They can also get amnesty to crimes they committed during the war; This is NOT APPLICABLE to Confederate leaders.
-Once 10% of a former Confederate state has taken the oath, they can write a new state constitution and be readmitted to the union.

Andrew Johnson implements the ten percent plan in 1965-1866, but grants pardons to Confederate leaders who personally ask for them.
-This caused the same Confederate leaders to gain power and write state constitutions.
-These constitutions included black codes that restricted newly freed slaves’ labor choices and civil rights.

Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson implements the ten percent plan in 1965-1866, but grants pardons to Confederate leaders who personally ask for them.
-This caused the same Confederate leaders to gain power and write state constitutions.
-These constitutions included black codes that restricted newly freed slaves’ labor choices and civil rights.
-Congress refused to ratify these new constitutions and seat the “new” Southern Congressmen.
-Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 to outlaw the Black codes – Andrew Johnson veteos the bill, but Congress overwrites the veto.
-Congress finally decides they can no longer work with Johnson and takes over reconstruction.
Presidential reconstruction
-Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson using Lincoln’s ten percent plan.
-Lasted from 1865 to 1866 when Congress decided they could no longer work with Johnson and takes over reconstruction.
Congressional reconstruction
-Congress took over reconstruction from Johnson and passed the Reconstruction Bill of 1867, which was essentially Congress’ version of the ten percent plan.
-The South is divided into 5 districts and the Army is sent to police the south and make sure there are no black codes or discrimination.
-Southern states’ new constitutions were required to include the fourteenth and fifteenth Amendments.
-Fourteenth Amendment: Promises equal protection of the law to all US citizens.
-Fifteenth Amendment: Gives black men the right to vote.
-The Freedman’s Bureau was given new powers and backed up by the Army.
-Sharecropping became common.
-South became dominated by Republican interracial state governments since former slaves could vote.
Thirteenth Amendment
-Outlawed slavery in ALL states (rather than only Southern Confederate states like the Emancipation Proclamation).
-Passed through Congress during the Civil War in 1865, ratified when the war was over.
Fourteenth Amendment
-Promises equal protection of the law to all US citizens.
-Passed in 1868.
Fifteenth Amendment
-Gives all men the right to vote regardless of race/color.
-Ratified in 1870.
Freedman’s Bureau
-Given new powers and backed by the Army during Congressional Reconstruction.
-Started as an emergency service for freed slaves.
-Services gradually expanded to reuniting slave families, legalizing slave marriages, registering births, settling labor disputes, setting up schools, etc.
-Attempted to redistribute land to former slaves, but there was very little land to redistribute since most of it had been returned to the former owners and the Bureau could not take this land back.
-Supported sharecropping, which ultimately perpetuated poverty for the poor living in the South.
-The long-term lease of land owned by white landowners to former slaves in return for a portion of their crops.
-Ultimately exploited former slaves and perpetuated poverty.
-Caused crop prices to fall.
-Landowners owned the equipment, so former slaves were forced to trade more crops in order to acquire equipment, which trapped them in debt.
-Kept the poor South in poverty until the 1920s.
Ku Klux Klan
-Founded in 1866.
-Attempted to terrorize blacks (officeholders, business owners, etc.) in order to attempt to suppress black voters and regain control the states that had been reconstructed (called “redemption”).
-Army was used to suppress the KKK, and it ceased to exist until the 1920s.
-However, other organizations were created to take the KKK’s place.
Compromise of 1877
-By 1876, most Southern states had fallen to Democratic “redemption”.
-In 1876, neither Tilden (Democratic candidate) or Hayes (Republican candidate) was able to get the majority vote because of corruption in three states.
-The Compromise (or “Corrupt Bargain”): in order for those three states to be Republican and Hayes to win the presidency, the Republicans will give up Reconstruction and withdraw the last federal troops from the South.
-Consequently, because of intimidation and laws, the number of black voters in the South gradually declines.
-From 1870 to the early 1900s.
-Rapid growth of manufacturing, mining, and railroads.
-Growth of a new class working for wages, rather than owning a farm or business. Much of this new working class consisted of immigrants.
-Growth of new industrial cities, which were connected by railroads.
-Many technological innovations, such as the telephone, camera, typewriter, and lightbulb.
The “Gilded Age”
-As a result of industrialization, there was a widening gap between the rich and the poor.
-Industrial workers tended to have jobs that were temporary, dangerous, or were paid low wages.
-1% of all Americans owned as much property as 99%.
-A time of Conspicuous Consumption: Rich people would show off their wealth, which poor people noticed.
-Named the “Gilded Age” by Mark Twain (something was gilded if it had a thin layer of gold over cheap material) because society was corrupt.
The Interstate Commerce Act
-Passed in 1887.
-Railroads were setting artificially high prices, which made it hard for farmers to ship their goods.
-This act required that railroad should set “reasonable rates”, although it did not allow the government to fix rates.
-Established the Interstate Commerce Commission to make sure railroads complied with the new conditions.
John D. Rockefeller
-Pioneered horizontal integration (controlling an entire segment of an industry; created trusts and monopolies).
-Dominated 90% of the oil industry with Standard Oil Company.
-Accumulated much wealth and power.
Lochner v. New York
-New York passed a law which stated that Bakery workers could work a maximum of 10 hours per day.
-The Supreme Court rejected the law, saying it violated Lochner and the workers’ freedom of contract without due process.
-Due process clause: no states can take away one’s rights without due process of law. This clause also came to cover corporations- laws couldn’t force corporations to have a minimum wage, eliminate child labor, set a maximum number of hours per week, etc. without due process.
Transcontinental Railroad
-Industrial cities were linked by a transcontinental railroad.
-Enabled businesses to trade
-Allowed farmers to settle in the West by allowing them to ship their equipment there, and ship their crops to be sold.
-However, farmers became dependent on the railroads, who would often create fixed pricing. The farmers couldn’t make money if the cost of shipping was too high.
Dawes Act
-Passed in 1887.
-Broke up treaty land and gave land to Indian households in an attempt to Americanize them.
-Sold the remainder of the land.
-Partly caused the Ghost Dance Movement, which was a political and religious protest movement against the White people.
Ghost Dance Movement
-Occurred in the 1880s.
-Political and religious protest movement: Participants believed that White people would vanish if they participated in the dance.
-Documentary: Indian police were sent by Whites to capture the leader of the Movement, Sitting Bull, and killed him. Big Foot attempted to reconcile with the whites- the soldiers set up a camp at Wounded Knee River and treated Big Foot for pneumonia while guarding the troop. The medicine man began to dance, and the soldiers opened fire, leaving 250 dead.
The Great Railroad Strike
-Occurred in 1877 as a result of a wage cut.
-Starts as a strike with railroad workers, but other workers eventually strike as well.
-The strike was put down violently, killing 20 workers.
-Shared many elements with other strikes (start as a response, become contagious, put down violently).
Pinkerton Detectives
-A private army/security company hired by companies to put down strikes.
Knights of Labor
-Reached its height in the 1880s.
-First nationwide labor union.
-Tried to organize skilled labor, unskilled labor, black labor, white labor, women, and immigrants. Tried to include all working class.
-Around for ~20 years. Set a model for new unions.
American Federation of Labor
-Developed in 1881.
-Targeted skilled labor, English speakers, and workers born in the US.
-More conservative than the Knights of Labor.
Haymarket Affair
-Chicago, 1886.
-Started with a peaceful meeting about a worker strike.
-The police tried to break the meeting up when someone threw a bomb into the crowd, killing policemen and strikers.
-Affair was highly publicized.
-7 men were convicted for being dangerous leaders (because they believed in workers rights and anarchism), rather than for throwing the bomb or acting out in violence.
-Ultimately, the affair caused fear that immigrant workers had radical, anti-government political beliefs.
Social Darwinism
-The application of Darwinism to the economy/society.
-The belief that the success of the rich and the suffering of the poor are natural and desirable for society to improve.
-Any attempt to tax rich, break up monopolies, or help the poor would interfere with the natural order of things and prevent society from advancing.
-Created the idea of “Survival of the Fittest”: the belief that the White race is naturally more fit.
-Problems that sparked Populism: corrupt government, biased newspapers, two classes (rich and poor), no labor unions, railroad companies had too much power, no national currency, too much land owned by corporations/railroads, private armies harassing workers, party-controlled voting/ballots.
-Solutions of the Populist Party Platform: private voting, graduated income tax, restrict number of terms a president could hold office, redistribute land, increased unionization, public utilities, free/private ballot system.
-Began as the Farmers’ Alliance in the 1870s. Aimed to pool farmers’ selling power to get an edge on the market, and to unite farmers and workers.
William Jennings Bryan
-Peoples Party can’t break into national politics, so it decides to nominate the same candidate as the Democrats, Bryan, for the 1896 election.
-The expansion of the money supply (free coinage of silver) is the heart of Bryan’s campaign. He uses biblical references to describe how the government is wronging laborers with the gold currency.
-Bryan loses the election, which marks the end of the Peoples Party.
Plessy v. Ferguson
-Court decision that allowed the Jim Crowe System (segregation) to be legal as long as it was “separate but equal”.
-A public mass mob activity that was used to violently intimidate blacks and prevent them from stepping out of line.
-Blacks were often lynched for being blamed for raping a White woman.
Page Law
-Passed in 1875.
-Outlaws the “importation of women” in order to prevent Chinese prostitutes.
-Ultimately prevents ALL Chinese women from immigrating to the US, even if they are wives or daughters of immigrating men.
Chinese Exclusion Act
-Passed in 1882.
-Cuts off Chinese immigration.
-First exclusion law based on race/place of birth.
Spanish American War
-In 1890, the US government is under pressure to watch what happens while Cubans attempt to overthrow the Spanish government because (1) US businesses have money tied up in Cuba (2) “Yellow newspapers” publish stories about the drama in Cuba, which interests the public.
-McKinley sends the Main, which blows up in Havana. Public believes that it was a Spanish attack, although in reality it was likely a mechanical failure.
-April 1898 US declares war.
-Most fighting occurs in June and July on Cuban soil. US wins war.
-US acquires Cuba and the Philippines, but doesn’t believe that the Philippines are advanced enough to govern themselves, so it is not granted independence.
-Cuba is given independence and the power to write its own constitution as long as the Platt Amendment is included.
Platt Amendment
-When the US acquired Cuba upon winning the Spanish American War, Cuba was given independence and the power to write its own constitution as long as the Platt Amendment was included.
-The Amendment (1902) said that the US is able to intervene whenever it sees fit.
Philippine American War
-When the US acquired the Philippines after the Spanish American War, it did not believe that the Philippines was advanced enough to govern itself.
-War against the Philippine Independence Movement lasted from 1899 to 1902.
-Much longer and many more deaths than the Spanish American War. US would scorch crops of supporters of guerilla warfare in order to weaken support.
-A peace treaty is signed, but sporadic fighting continues.
-US retains control of the Philippines until the 1940s.
-A loosely defined movement to reform American society and politics in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
-Unified by: a common observation of problems such as poverty, a common faith in reform and the government.
-Progressivism is the beginning of the government becoming more involved in regulating society and economics.
Jacob Riis
-A muckraker.
-Published “How the Other Half Lives”, which consists of photographs of urban slums.
-Writers and journalists that expose “dirt”.
-Was frowned upon at first, but later became a more positive term.
-Exposed problems that Progressive politicians tried to solve.
Industrial Workers of the World
Theodore Roosevelt
-First Progressive president.
-Believed in economic competition. Broke up trusts. Settled labor disputes by having the government be a neutral third party.
-Passed consumer protection laws.
-Created national conservations.
-During the election of 1912, his “Progressive Party” and “New Nationalism” programs were much more radical. They consisted of heavy taxes, heavy regulation, eight-hour days, minimum wage, national health care and unemployment insurance, and social security.
Pure Food and Drug Act
-Passed by Roosevelt.
-Regulated sanitary conditions in food factories, specifically meat packing plants.
-Spurred by Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
William Howard Taft
-Supported anti-trust activities. Passed the Sherman Antitrust Act, which broke up Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company.
-Supported national income tax.
Woodrow Wilson
-Adopted “New Freedom” program during the election of 1912, which was much like Roosevelt’s old program.
-Labor and union laws.
-Federal Reserve System that helped track money.
-Federal Trade Commission that helped track businesses.
-President during World War I. Issues Fourteen Points as his goal for the war.
Eugene V. Debs
-The Sedition Act targeted anti-government speech.
-Eugene V. Debs (a presidential campaign in 1912) was jailed for ten years for his antiwar speech.
Federal Reserve System
-Progressive act passed by Wilson.
-Tracks money.
Federal Trade Commission
-Progressive act passed by Wilson.
-Government agency to protect consumers and prevent monopolies.
Margaret Sanger
-Opened the first women’s health clinic in Brooklyn in 1916.
-Arrested a month later.
-Later will be the founder of Planned Parenthood.
Nineteenth Amendment
-Ratified in 1920.
-Gave women the right to vote.
-A result of many different women’s rights group joining the women’s suffrage movement in the early 1900s. The movement began state-by-state, but later became a federal effort.
The Lusitania
-A passenger ship that was sunk by Germany in 1914, killing 124 American civilians. This sparked outrage at Germany in the US.
-Wilson threatened to enter World War I unless Germany stops attacking civilian ships. Germany agrees and the US stays out of the war.
-Germany later begins attacking supply ships, including American ships, hoping that the US would take too long to decide whether to enter the war. This didn’t work- the US enters the war in 1917.
Fourteen Points
-Issued to the entire world in January 1918.
-Wilson’s goals for the war. Lays out a plan to prevent a war such as World War I from happening again.
-The League of Nations is one of the Fourteen points.
Committee on Public Information
-First government organization to manipulate the public opinion on the War.
-Set up by Wilson.
-Recruited artists who created posters and other propaganda in an attempt to get people to enlist in the army and support war efforts.
Red Scare
-Anti-communist movement led by US Attorney General Palmer.
-Aggressively raided the socialist party, communist party, and other labor organizations. Over 5,000 arrested, many without warrants, and held for months without trial.
-Successfully undermined and destabilized many labor groups.
-Received backlash from the press and Congress. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) was created to defend people against government attacks on their civil liberties based on their political beliefs.
League of Nations
-One of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
-Would create a group where nations could solve their problems without going to war.
-Wilson didn’t have much say in the peace treaty ending World War I because the US didn’t lose as many men in the war as England and France. Wilson didn’t get any of his Fourteen Points into the Treaty except for the League of Nations. When he brought the Treaty to the US Senate to be signed, the largely Republican senate refused to sign the Treaty because it didn’t want to give up its power to the League of Nations. Treaty was finally signed without the League.

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