History 1301 (1st Exam)

History 1301 (1st Exam)

Native American Population in 1492
70 Million Native Americans
Texas Indians
Cadoo, Comache, Kiowa
European Foods ( Not known by Indians)
Wheat, Oats and Barley
Indian Foods (Not known by Europeans)
Corn, Squash and Beans
Chrisitan world in 1942
Protestants and Catholics
Christopher Columbus
Sailed looking for a better trade route.
Small Pox
Killed 3/4 of Indians
Amerigo Vespucci
Discovered other continents., The italian sailor who corrected Columbus’s mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him
Debtors Prison
1502 – Christopher Columbus thrown in prison because he was in debt to Spain, Spain loaned money for voyages.
Ferdinand Magellan
Discovered how large the world was in 1522.
Slaves taken from Africa
13 million Africans taken, 1 million died on the way to Africa passage, 12 million shipped to Americas, 3 million died on ships.
Population of Slaves (that lived)
1 million – Central America, 3.5 million Caribbean Island, 1 million to United States
Three G’s of Spanish
1. Gold, 2. Glory (military win big battles), 3. God
Black Legend of Spanish
Cruel, forceful ways to convert Indians and Protestants to Catholicism.
Las Casas
1514 – Better treatment for Indians.
Encomienda System
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
Repartimiento System
required adult male Native Americans to devote a set number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises. PROBLEM- abused workers due to sense of urgency and exploitation
Spanish Explorer DeLeon
1513 – Juan Ponce De Leon explores Florida
Spanish Explorer Balboa
1513 – Central America
Spanish Explorer De Cardova
1517 – Mayas (Yucatan Peninsula)
*Spanish Explorer Cortes*
1519-1522 begins the conquest of Aztec empire (Mexico), 1535 Eastern Canada – Trade with French Indians
Spanish Explorer Pizzaro
1532 – Incas (Peru), led soldiers down Pacific coast and brutally subdues the Inca empire.
Spanish Explorer Desoto
1539 – 1542 South Claimed
*Spanish Explorer Coronado*
1540 – 1542 – U.S. Southwest
Mexico Indian Groups
Nahuatls, Laxacans, Plaxatecas
Tenochtitlan
Indians, Mexico City – 200,000
Small Pox Epidemic
within 100 miles of Tenochtitlans, killed 100,000 and 1.5 million Aztecs
Dutch Explorer Henry Hudson
Landed in Manhattan, went to Hudson river but did not find waterway to Pacific.
Wall Street
Dutch built a wall to protect themselves from the Indians.
New Amsterdam
Changed to New York when English took over.
Augenots
French Protestants
Black Robes
French Jesuit Priests
The Beaver War
1649 – 1654 Native war that involved the French and Iroquois; fighting over trade
First English Colony
1587 – Roanoke Island (North Carolina), 102 people vanished (lost colony)
Dutch War
1643 – 1645 The war lasted 2 years. It started when the Dutch killed 80 Indians
New England Indian Wars
1637 – Dequot War and 1676 Wampanough War
New England Original Colonies
1637 New Hampshire, 1620 Massachusetts, 1636 Rhode Island, 1637 Conneticuit
Mid Atlantic Original Colonies
1609 New Amsterdam (New York), 1864 New Jersey, 1681 Pennsylvania, 1702 Delaware
South Original Colonies
1636 Maryland, 1602 Jamestown, Virginia, 1656 Carolina (1704 Split into North and South Carolina), 1732 Georgia
12,000 B.C
Humans have migrated to the Americas, most from Siberia
A.D 1492
Columbus sailed from Spain (first voyage of discovery)
John Cabot
1497 – Explores New Foundland
Jacques Cartier
1541 – Sailing for France, explores the St. Lawrence River and then went north to present day Montreal.
Protestant Reformation
1517 – 1648 Spurred religious conflict between Catholics and Protestants
Spanish Armada
1588 – defeated by the English
Aztecs
Indian tribe located in the valley area by the Mississippi River.
Reformation
Greed, conquest, racism and slavery.
Conquestadores
Spanish Soldiers
Encomienda
Officers became privileged landowners.
Pueblos
Indian tribe, talked into Spanish domination, promised “peace, justice, prosperity and protection”.
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen of England, encouraged Dutch and English sea captains to attach Spanish.
Original Colony Population
1700’s – 250,000 & 1750’s – 1,500,000
The Gentility
Upper 5% of English dominated colony politics.
Production
1780’s used artisan system (hand made – $300) to 1880’s mass production (mass produced, cheaper – $100)
George Oglethorpe
1732 – 1742 founded Georgia, banned alcohol and slavery. After his death alcohol and slavery made their way into Georgia.
Bacon Rebellion
1676 – Virginia, Indentured servants were not given land for the work provided and rebelled. Slavery moved in after rebellion.
Halfway Covenant
1660 Puritans, people drifted away from religion but they baptized the children to protect from witchcraft.
Navigation Acts
1660 – 1697 English passed act so that colonist goods could only be by English ships. Act was not properly governed due to lack of man power because of the French wars.
World wide struggle for power
Two main superpowers trying to conquer the world: English Protestants and French Catholics.