History 1301 Exam 1

History 1301 Exam 1

Incas
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America, Peru.
Mayans
A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico.
Aztecs
Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Capital was Tenochtitlan.
Worshipped nature, and sun.
Cortes conquered them in 1521.
Mercantilism
a nationalistic program that assumed that the total of the world’s gold and silver remained essentially fixed, with only a nation;s share in that wealth subject to change
Cathay
an archaic or literary name for China
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China, but found the Bahamas instead (1451-1506)
Conquistadors
Spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Requerimento
a document by the king of spain to the indians saying that God gave the pope in Rome the authority over all men
Slavery
condition of being owned by, and forced to work for, someone else
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Spanish Armada
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Quebec
First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain
St. Lawrence River
area where most New France settlements were located
Coueurs de bois
Who traveled throughout New France to the interior of North America to engage in the fur trade without permission from the French
Pere Jacques Marquette
French missionary who accompanied Louis Joliet in exploring the upper Mississippi River valley (1637-1675)
Sieur de la Salle
French explorer in North America who claimed Louisiana for France (1682)
Louisiana
It was ceded to Spain in compensation for their losses in the Seven Years’ War
New Orleans
Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
English navigator who in 1583 established in Newfoundland the first English colony in North America (1539-1583)
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as ” The Lost Colony.”
Richard Hakluyt
(28) An English writer that tried to convince the English in England to relocate to the American colonies
The Principle Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries of the English Nation (1589)
written by Richard Hakluyt to convince Englishmen to come to America
Jamestown
first permanent English settlement in North America
John Smith
Was appointed the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, “people who do not work do not eat.” His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.
Henry VIII
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Queen Elizabeth
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded the Catholic Mary I and restored Protestantism to England
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Separatists
sub-group of the Puritans who vowed to break completely with the Church of England
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Charter
a document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights
Royal Charter
a charter granted by the sovereign (especially in Great Britain)
Proprietary Charter
(usually businessmen) were given grants of land, appointed their own government, with less control by King. Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania.
William Bradford
Leader of the Mayflower Pilgrims and Governor of the Plymouth colony.
Plymouth Colony
colony formed by the Pilgrims when they arrived at Plymouth Rock in 1620
Pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
John Winthrope
He was governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Massachusettes Bay Colony
a group of Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony along the upper coast of North America. The port town of Boston soon became the colony’s thriving capital.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony Charter
1629
John Calvert
“Lord Baltimore” – the proprietor of Maryland – welcomed settlers of many religions – a refuge for Catholics.
Maryland
the first colony established for Catholics
Rhode Island
Roger Williams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Supported the separation of church and state and paying the Indians for their land.
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. Left Massachusetts bay colonly because of his beliefs
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
New York
settled 1624- originally Dutch colony “New Amsterdam”, led by Peter Stuyvesant; 1664- Duke of York ordered to take it over, no force was used, name changed to New York
Peter Stuyvestant
He was the Governor of the Dutch colony, New Netherland. It was taken by the British in 1664 and renamed New York
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Restoration
the re-establishment of the British monarchy in 1660
Glorious Revolution
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James’ Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church policy of 1662, which allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the “elect” members of the church from the regular members.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Enlightenment
movement during the 1700’s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Swilling the Planters with Bumbo
treating voters to gifts and other freebies during election campaigns
King Williams War
Also known as the War of the league of Augsburg, it lasted from 1689-1697. It was the third time the major European powers crushed the expansionist plans of King Louis XIV of France.
Queen Anne’s War
(1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe.
King George’s War
The third Anglo-French war in North America (1744-1748), part of the European conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
The French and Indian War
The Seven Years War, fought from 1756-1763, was known by this name by colonists in North America, where the French and British fought for domination of the continent
Parliament
representative law making body whose members are elected or appointed.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Proclamation Line of 1763
prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, colonists werent allowed to settle of buy land there, this led to outrage in the 13 colonies
Sugar Act
April 5, 1764. law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies
Stamp Act
March 1765-1766. A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Quartering Act
May 1765. an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
Declaratory Act
March 1766. Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Townshend Revenue Acts
Acts of Parliament, passed in 1767, imposing duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass.
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Tea Act
tax on tea; made the east india company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773)
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
Applied only to Massachusetts to punish them for Boston Tea Party; closed Boston’s port, reduced powers of self-government, allowed royal officers to be tried in England or other colonies, and provided for quartering of British troops in empty houses or barns.
Lexington and Concord
First battles of the Revolutionary War 1775
Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed’s Hill. It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Colonial Militia
A volunteer group of soldiers that did not like British rule. Played useful roles in many battles , especially as the support and reinforcements for the Continental Army regulator.
White Plains
A battle in New York between George Washington and General Howe.
MESSED UP ON THIS ONE
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Saratoga
the decisive early battle of the American Revolution that led to the alliance with France
Philadelphia
where the Constitutional Convention was held
Monmouth
1778 Revolutionary War battle site in New Jersey where neither side won a clear victory
Siege of Savannah
British remained in control of Savnannah during the American Revolution.
Siege of Charleston
It was three months of bombardment and is known as the single greatest American defeat in the entire war.
Battle of Camden
big British victory in August of 1780 where General Cornwallis was placed in charge of the South
Cowpens
battle won by American forces; one of Lord Cornwallis’s major losses
Battle of Yorktown
final battle of the war, in which French and American forces led by George Washington defeated British General Cornwallis
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry