History 1301 Exam 2

Paul Revere
Patriot who made a ride to warn colonists of British arrival
Lexington and Concord
Beginning of the American Revolution
April 1775
“The Shot Heard Around the World”
Second Continental Congress
Served as the gov’t for 6 years
May 1775
Formed an Army with Washington as Commander
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Olive Branch Petition
Colonists expressed regret for what happened and claimed to be loyal citizens of England
King refused and declared the colonies to be in rebellion
Battle of Bunker Hill
Took place near Boston
British won because the colonists ran out of ammunition
Thomas Paine
Pamphlet “Common Sense”
Argued that all problems were the King’s fault
Thomas Jefferson
“Father of the Declaration of Independence”
majority of the wording
Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776
Hessians
German mercenary soldiers
Tories
Englishmen in the colonies representing the King
Whigs
Patriots who favored independence and the new government
Count de Vergennes
French foreign minister that hinted at French aid early on and later initiated 2 important treaties
Pierre Beaumarchais
Set up a fake trading company that secretly provided arms to the U.S. that were paid for by the king of France
Battle of Trenton
Washington defeated a large force of Hessians and moved on to capture Princeton a few days later
Battle of Saratoga
General Horatio Gates (American) planned attack on Johnny Burgoyne as he journeyed South with a huge entourage
Horatio Gates
American officer in command at Battle of Saratoga
“Gentleman” Johnny Burgoyne
British officer in command at Battle of Saratoga
Brought women and children along
Treaty of Amity and Commerce
France recognized the U.S. as independent and offered trade
Treaty of Alliance
France officially became a partner with the U.S. in the war
Valley Forge
About 2,500 of Washington’s men died in the winter of 1777/78 because of cold, hunger, and disease
Carlisle Commission
Delivered a British plan for conciliation designed to block the French alliance
Rejected by U.S. Congress
General Lafayette
French general who brought troops to help the colonies win the war
Battle of Yorktown
American victory ended fighting in America
French navy blocked the harbor at Yorktown so the British could not send ships to rescue their troops
Washington and French troops had British cornered
Benedict Arnold
Thought he should have been given credit at Saratoga
Conspired against colonies to hand over West Point
Plan was discovered but he escaped
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended American Revolution
Britain recognized U.S. independence
Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Said that no man was required to support any religion
Primogeniture
Land must be inherited by the oldest son
Entail
All land must be inherited in one piece by one person
Massachusetts Constitution
Oldest written state constitution still in effect
Virginia Bill of Rights
First state to include of Bill of Rights
Model for other states
George Mason
Main author or Virginia Bill of Rights
“Father of the Bill of Rights”
“Grandfather of U.S. Bill of Rights”
Jonathan Trumbull
Artist to first display unique American art
Noah Webster’s Blue Back Speller
Simplified spellings of British words
Adam Smith
“The Wealth of Nations” caused the founding fathers to adopt capitalism
Father of Capitalism
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution for the U.S.
Approved by the 2nd Continental Congress in November 1777
Ratified in November 1781
Created “a firm league of friendship”
Emphasis on states’ rights
Mt. Vernon Conference
Washington had delegates from Maryland and Virginia come to his house to settle argument over trade on the Potomac River
Annapolis Convention
5 states attended to discuss issues over trade
Congress was asked to call another convention
Philadelphia Convention
1787
12 colonies send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation
Delegates agree the U.S. needs a new Constitution
Shay’s Rebellion
Farmers in western Massachusetts rebelled because of high taxes and bad state government
Took over court houses to prevent foreclosure on farms
Constitutional Convention
1787
Delegates sent to write a new Constitution
George Washington as presiding officer
James Madison as principal author
(Same as Philadelphia Convention)
James Madison
“Father of the Constitution”
Virginia Plan
National executive
National court system
Two house legislature
Upper house chosen by lower
Lower house chosen by popular election with the number of state representatives based on population
New Jersey Plan
Plural executive
Supreme Court
One vote for each state
Great Compromise
Settled the issue of representation in congress
Bicameral Congress
House of Reps based on population
Senate with 2 senators from each state
Three-fifths Compromise
Each slave was counted as 2/5 of a person for taxation and representation
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
Congress could not stop the importation of slaves for at least 20 years and could not tax exports
U.S. Constitution
Federal type of government-powers divided between national and state governments
Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches-President, Congress, and Supreme Court
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Implemented when 9 states had ratified
Federalists
Approved the new Constitution and the Federal government
Anti-Federalists
Opposed the new Constitution and the Federal government
The Federalist Papers
85 essays published in the newspapers of New York to convince the colonists to ratify the Constitution
Written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
Northwest Ordinance 1787
Passed by Articles of Confederation Congress
Organized the Northwest Territory
Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
Set rules for how territories could become states
U.S. Bill of Rights
Added to the Constitution in 1791
Washington’s Presidency
Pomp and Ceremony
Prestigious Cabinet: Thomas Jefferson-Secretary of State
Alexander Hamilton-Secretary of the Treasury
Executive Independence
Commander-in-Chief
Whiskey Rebellion
Farmers in western Pennsylvania rebelled because of a tax on whiskey
Washington called the army to put down the rebellion but farmer’s gave in
Jay Treaty
1794
U.S. granted England most-favored-nation-status and received little in return
Pinckney Treaty
1795
Spain gave the U.S. the right to use the Mississippi River and deposit goods at New Orleans
Farewell Address 1796
Washington published speech at end of office in Philadelphia newspaper warning against political parties and entangling alliances
Alexander Hamilton
1st Secretary of the Treasury
Economic Policy: Report on Public Credit 1790
Report on Manufacturing 1791
First Bank of the U.S.
Controversy over creation led to creation of Federalist and Republican parties
Election of 1796
Federalist John Adams wins President
Republican Thomas Jefferson becomes Vice President
XYZ Affair
U.S. sent 3 representatives to France to get them to stop plundering American ships
French demanded bribes before even discussing
Alien and Sedition Acts
Limited freedom of speech, press, and liberty of aliens
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
These states declared Alien and Sedition acts unconstitutional
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson runs again and this time defeats Adams
Aaron Burr runs as the Republican Party’s vice presidential candidate
Jefferson and Burr tie
The House of Representatives decides
Federalist Era ends
12th Amendment
Separate ballots to be cast for president and vice president
1804
Burr/Hamilton Duel
Burr runs for governor of NY
Hamilton campaigns against him causing Burr’s loss
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and Hamilton was killed
Marbury v Madison
Supreme Court ruled a law unconstitutional for the first time
Established power of Judicial Review
Jefferson’s Presidency
Orderly transition from Federalist party to Republican party
Less Pomp and Ceremony
Economy in Government: Whiskey Tax repealed
Navy cutbacks
Reduced the Army
Reduced National Debt
Louisiana Purchase
1803
U.S. bought Louisiana from France and doubled size
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1803-1806
Explore Louisiana all the way to the Pacific Ocean to strengthen U.S. claims to Oregon
Embargo Act of 1807
England and France were at war and both were interfering with U.S. trade
Jefferson halted all trade with foreign countries
First president to use economic warfare
War of 1812
War between U.S. and Britain
U.S. forces were defeated on land and sea
Capital was burned
Francis Scott Key
Wrote the Star Spangled Banner during the War of 1812
Not National Anthem until 1930s
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson defended against British attack after peace treaty had already been signed
Treaty of Ghent
December 1814
Ended War of 1812
Status Quo

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