History 1302 Exam 1

Homestead Act
–1863
–Westward Expansion
–Established process in which the western states would be settled
National Banking Act
–1863
–North for it, South against
–Too much power in hands of banks
–Established currency; Greenbacks
Freedman’s Bureau
–1865 by Congress
–Helps integrate slaves
–Loved by North, hated by South
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Ten Percent Plan
–Lincoln
–If 10% of the states population swore an oath of loyalty to the U.S., the state could form a new government, declare end of slavery and send representatives to Congress
Wade-Davis Bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Ironclad Oath
–Oath that you took to swear loyalty to the Union
–“Never served nor supported South”
Andrew Johnson
–17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln’s assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached
Radical Reconstruction
–Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
Black Codes
–Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Thirteenth Amendment
–Abolished slavery
Fourteenth Amendment
–Made “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” citizens of the country
Fifteenth Amendment
–Gave African American men the right to vote
Command of the Army Act
–An act issued in 1867 that forced Andrew Johnson to issue military orders through the general of the army (then Ulysses S. Grant) instead of directly to the south.
Tenure of Office Act
–Made it illegal for president to replace officers who have been confirmed by Congress without Congressional approval
Military Reconstruction Act
It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law
Carpetbagger
–Someone in the South that favors Radical Reconstruction
–From North originally
Scalawag
–Southerner that supported Radical Reconstruction
Credit-Mobilier
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
Ku Klux Klan
–Terrorizes Carpet Baggers, Scalawags, and especially Blacks
–Was successful–Reconstruction collapses
Ulysses S. Grant
–Former Union General–Americans love war heroes
–Becomes 18th president
–“Gold v. Paper”–He favored gold
–Presidency runs ragged
“Bloody Shirt” v. “Dirty Laundry”
–Election of 1876–Reconstruction
–Tilden(D) v. Hayes(R)
–Bloody Shirt(R)-“Vote as you shot.”
–Dirty Laundry(D)-Reminds of Republican scandals
Greenbacks v. Gold
–Debate between established currency, Greenbacks, or gold.
–Southerners wanted gold
–Northerners wanted Greenbacks
Horace Greely
–NY Times editor
–Candidate for Liberal Republican Party
–Okay with gold, but not reconstruction
Jay Cooke
–Wealthy New York financier whose bank collapse in 1873 set off an economic depression
Jay Gould
–United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
Rutherford B. Hayes
–19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
–“Bloody Shirt” v. “Dirty Laundry”
Wormley House Bargain
–Republicans get White House
–Hayes must withdraw Union troops
–Agrees
New South v. Old
–Share Cropping
–Jim Crow Laws
Sharecropping/Tenancy
–Half your crop goes to land lord
Crop Lien System
–System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
Bourbon Redeemers
–Southern Democrats
–Holds a political office
–Opposes Reconstruction
Convict Lease
–New South
–Redeemers lease a convict
–Closely relates to slavery; almost all are black
Laissez-faire
–“Let it be”
–Government stay out of economy
–Opposite of regulation
Jim Crow
–Separate but equal
Plessy v. Ferguson
–Separate but equal
–Private businesses CAN discriminate
Ida Wells
–Reporter who fled South
–Threatened to be lynched
–Revealed truth about “raping” cover story
–One of the initiators of the NAACP
Booker T. Washington
–Accommodation
–“Accept and ride out segregation”
–“Prosperity before equality”
W.E.B. Dubois
–From North
–Agitation
–Booker T. and him have opposing views
–“Equality must come first.”
Accommodation v. Agitation
–Accommodation–Booker T.–“Ride it out”; “Prosperity before equality”

–Agitation–W.E.B. Dubois–“Equality before prosperity”

Great American Desert
–The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.
–Now some of the most fertile soils in the nation
Exodusters
–Black settlers
–Escaped from “New South” and headed west in large groups
Buffalo Soldiers
–Black Calvary
–“Policed” the Frontier
–Name given by Indians
Western Expansion
–Homestead Act
–Railroad
–Barbed Wire invented
Reservations
–Areas of federal land set aside for American Indians
Little Big Horn
–General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
–Custer’s Last Stand
George Armstrong Custer
–United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
Wounded Knee
–In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Chief Joseph
–Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Geronimo
–Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
Wovoka
–Indian prophet/messiah
–Ghost Dance in Dakota Territories
–White fears
–Massacre at Wounded Knee 7th Calvary
Ghost Dance
–Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
–Scared white men–they thought it was a war cry
Cow Town
–Towns where cattle were held in pens until they could be loaded into railroad cars and shipped into markets in the East
Texas Longhorn
–Long-horned beef cattle formerly common in southwestern United States
–Sucky college football team
–GIG ‘EM AGGIES!!!
Refrigerated Train Cars
–Invented by Gustavus Swift
–Used to transport meat
Barbed Wire
–Cheap way to contain cattle
–Led to some “Range Wars”
Bonanza Farms
–“Boom” out west
–Mining, Ranching, and Farming
–Massive and mechanized
Frontier Thesis
–One person for every one hundred square miles
–“Frontier was no more”
–“Frontier is what made America”
Frederick Jackson Turner
–Wrote “Frontier Thesis”
–United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
Reasons for Business Growth
–Railroads
–Technological Innovation
–Power Sources–Main source: COAL
Second Industrial Revolution
–Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods
Transcontinental Railroad
–Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Cornelius Vanderbilt
–United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
–At one point owned all railroads in the United States
Alexander Graham Bell
–Invented the telephone
Thomas Edison
–American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
John D. Rockefeller
–Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
–OIL!!
Andrew Carnegie
–Bethlehem Steel
–80-90% nation’s steel
–Bessemer Process
–Vertical Integration
J.P. Morgan
–Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the “Robber barons”
Richard Sears
–A successful and creative figure in the mail-order business who began by selling jewelry
Standard Oil
–Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller
Bethlehem Steel
–Andrew Carnegie
Vertical Integration
–Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Investment Banking
–The sale of stocks and bonds for corporations
Mass-market Retail
–A company that sells affordably priced products that appeal to a wide variety of consumers
“Gospel of Wealth”
–Written by Andrew Carnegie
–Obligations of the Wealthy
–Wealthy and charity
Labor Unions
–Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
Molly Maguires
–A society fo irish miners who engaged in a violent confrontation with pennsylvania mining companies in the 19th century
Knights of Labor
–Labor Union
–Anyone could join
–Boycotts over strikes
–Hay Market Square
–Due to “Anarchy,” it dissolved
AFL
–American Federation of Labor
–Led by Samuel Gompers
–Only includes SKILLED workers–very exclusive
–Still around today
Samuel Gompers
–He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Eugene Debs
–Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
–Studied Marx
Haymarket Affair
–1886 incident that made unions, particularly the Knights of Labor, look violent because a bomb exploded during a protest of striking workers.
–Anarchy
Pullman Strike
–1894 – nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages — Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Homestead Strike
–In 1892- one of the most violent strikes in America at the Carnegie Steel Company. 7 people died. 300 Pinkerton detectives were hired and there was a battle where they ultimately surrendered.
Karl Marx
–Father of Communism
Socialism
–A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Industrial Workers of the World
–IWW Union
-Radical Socialists
–“Wobblies”
Vertical Growth
–Expanding capabilities on levels other than its primary function
Horizontal Growth
–Gaining control of all or nearly all of a particular industry (monopoly)
Immigration
–Movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population
–Immigrants were rushing in to America
Ellis Island
–An island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Boss Politics
–“Urban Politics”
–Very Corrupt
–“You scratch my back I scratch yours.”
William Tweed
–N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City
Tammany Hall
–Most notorious political machine; NY city; Marcy Tweed also know as Boss Tweed became head in 1863
American Protective Association
–Restricts immigration
Nationalism
–The doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
–‘MERICA!!!
Vaudeville
–Stage entertainment made up of various acts, such as dancing, singing, comedy, and magic shows
Tenement Housing
–Apartment-style housing that was mainly used to house recent immigrants and their families. They had problems with overcrowding and it often became these families permanent housing.
Apartments
–Better solution to Tenement Housing
Department Stores
–Larger stores that are organized into many separate departments and offer many product lines
–Sears, Macy’s
Spectator Sports
–Baseball, football, basketball
–Helped people follow rules
Coney Island
–Amusement Park
–Fun fun FUN!!
Saloons
–Bars
–Social/political center of a city
Social Darwinism
–“Survival of the Fittest”
-Herbert Spencer and Graham Sumner
Social Gospel
–Urbanization
–Opposite of Social Darwinism
–Charity is required by faith
–Rauschenbusch
Settlement House
–A center in an underprivileged area that provides community services
Jane Addams
–Founded Hull House
Women’s Suffrage
–Women’s right to vote
–Susan B. Anthony
-Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
–Social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
–United States suffragist and feminist
Guilded Age
–Golden on the outside, but corruption and political problems on the inside
Populism
–The movement to increase farmers’ political power and to work for legislation in their interest.
–Explained by the Wizard of Oz
Spoils System
–The system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
–Corrupt
Grover Cleveland
–Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
Chester A. Arthur
–Corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system
–He was chosen as Garfield’s running mate.
–Garfield won but was assassinated–Arthur becomes president
James Garfield
–20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage
Benjamin Harrison
–23rd President
—Republican
–Poor leader
–Introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
Stalwarts
–Reform and corruption
–“Nothing wrong with current system”–Halfbreeds
–Boss Tweed and Chester Arthur
–Republican
Half-Breeds
–Wanted to reform
The Grange
–Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Interstate Commerce Commission
–Gave government control of rail roads
Rum, Romanism, Rebellion
–An insult made against NY Irish-Americans by a republican clergyman in the 1884 election. Blaine’s failure to repudiate this statement lost him NY and contributed to his defeat by Grover Cleveland.
The Wizard of Oz
–Explains the Populist party
Sherman Anti-trust Act
–First federal action against monopolies

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