History ch 17 terms and essays

History ch 17 terms and essays

steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable _______ in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery.
Indian cotton textiles
time period: 750-1100 c.e. India had long been the world center of cotton textile production, the first place to turn sugarcane juice into crystallized sugar, and the source of many agricultural innovations and mathematical inventions.
middle-class values
They benefited most conspicuously from industrialization; some were wealthy factory and mine owners, bankers, and merchants; more were smaller businessmen, doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, journalists, scientists, and other professionals required in any industrial society; politically they were liberals, favoring constitutional government, private property, free trade, and social reform within limits; their agitation resulted in the Reform Bill of 1832, which broadened the right to vote to many men of the ____ class, but not to ____ class women; women were increasingly cast as homemakers, wives, and mothers. values were a belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain. This social class was developed in the 19th century. It emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and ” respectability.”
lower middle class
Britain’s industrial economy matured and it gave way to the ___ middle class. People were employed in the growing service sector as clerks, salespeople, bank tellers, hotel staff, secretaries, telephone operators and police officers. By the end of the 19th century, the growing segment of the ____ class represented about 20% of Britain’s population and provided new employment for women and men.
Ellen Johnston
Born in 1835 to a working class family (worked in a variety of textile mills throughout her life)-single mother, when she was young, she immigrated to America with her father, but her mother refused to join the- when she was 8 her mom married an abusive man who made her work in a labor-intensive factory- when she was older she hoped to be a poet and escape a life of poverty (she received some financial support from upper-class people, including Queen Victoria, both class/gender made it hard for her to escape the working-class into the middle class.
Karl Marx
(1818-1883), German political philosopher and writer. Coauthor with Friedrich Engels of The Communist Manifesto which described the new philosophy of scientific socialism, which is the basis for modern communism.
Labour Party
Was established in the 1890’s. It advocated a reformist program and a peaceful democratic transition to socialism, largely rejecting the class struggle and revolutionary emphasis of classical Marxism. Generally known as “social democracy,” this approach to socialism was especially prominent in Germany during the late 19th century and spread more widely in the 20th century when it came into conflict with the more violent and revolutionary movements calling themselves “communist.”
socialism in the United States
The idea of socialism did not appeal to American workers nearly as much as it did to European laborers. The Social Party of America garnered just 6% of the vote for its presidential candidate in the 1912 election. Socialism came to be defined as fundamentally un-american in a country that so valued individualism and so feared “big government.” It was a distinctive feature of the American response to industrialism.
Progressives
Also known as the “Bull Moose” Party, known for its strong commitment to progressive causes that had become popular over the past two decades. The party advocated additional regulation of industry and trusts, sweeping reforms of many areas of government, compensation by the government for workers injured on the job, pensions for the elderly and for widows with children, and women suffrage.
Russian Revolution of 1905
Long Term Causes – rapidly changing society- unsettled and volatile
– Depression after 1900, poor harvest 1901
– Growing opposition from liberal intelligentsia
– High taxes and redemption payments, left peasants poor
– Nicholas II still committed to autocracy
– Industrial unrest and peasant revolt
Short Term Causes – Bloody Sunday
– Failure of the Russo- Japanese war 1904- 1905
Events a month after Bloody Sunday half a million workers went on strike.
affected the railways so food couldn’t be brought to the cities
peasants revolted
June 1905 Battleship Potemkin mutinied
national minorities engaged in widespread protests
St Petersburg Soviet elected by workers- dominated by mensheviks (inc. Leon Trotsky)
Results of the 1905 Revolution the Duma
October Manifesto
the army and police remained loyal to the tsar
political parties were taken by surprise and didn’t coordinate
many revolutinary leaders were in exile
some Liberals welcomed the manifesto, whilst socialists remained hostile.
caudillos
Caudillos were military strongmen. These caudillos were enabled to achieve power as defenders of order and property by conflicts between factions in Latin America in the 19th century.
Latin America export boom
the large-scale increase in Latin American exports. The exports were mostly raw materials and foodstuffs. This happened to industrializing countries in the second half of the 19th century. This export boom was made possible by major improvements in shipping. The boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes.
Mexican Revolution
a long and bloody war. It took place from 1910-1920. During this time Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Diaz. They planned on creating a new, much more democratic political order.
dependent development
term used to describe a new form of colonialism. This form of colonialism was expressed in the power exercised by foreign investors.
essay: what did humankind gain from the Industrial Revolution, and what did it lose?
Among the gains were an enormous increase in the output of goods and services because of a
wholly unprecedented jump in the capacities of human societies to produce wealth. Other gains
included unprecedented technological innovation; new sources of power; and new employment
opportunities for participants.
The losses included the destruction of some older ways of life; the demise of some older methods
of production; miserable working and living conditions for many of the laboring classes; new and
sometimes bitter social-and class-based conflicts; and environmental degradation.
essay: in what ways might the Industrial Revolution be understood as a global rather than simply a European phenomenon?
Rapidly spread across Europe and was easily adopted across cultures
Began with the colonies-extracting raw materials from the Americas and its dominance in the growing market of goods in the Americas
Latin America’s economy was defined by exports of raw materials to supply the factories and the workforce of industrial countries.
essay: how might you situate the Industrial Revolution in the long history of humankind? How do you think the material covered in this chapter will be viewed 50, 100 or 200 years into the future?
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essay: how did the Industrial Revolution interact with the Scientific Revolution and the French Revolution to generate Europe’s modern transformation?
Both combined to have a strong political and economic impact in Europe. This included individualism and secularism(Protestant legacy). The scientific revolution aided the industrial revolution with new technological innovations that were encouraged.