History CH. 18-21

History CH. 18-21

All of the following factors helped accelerate economic growth after the civil war EXCEPT
The use of prison labor by railroad companies.
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the second industrial revolution in the US because
They facilitated the emergence of a national and even inter nation markets for American goods and services.
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that
Business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands.
Who developed the first alternating current system?
George Westinghouse
Why was the development of the alternating current electric system significant?
It enabled electricity to be transmitted across long distances.
What was one main reason electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late 19th century?
They freed factories to locate wherever they wished and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits.
The Pennsylvania oil rush:
Outweighed, in economic importance, the California gold rush of a decade before.
“Trusts” like Rockefeller’s standard oil Trust were vulnerable because they:
Were appealing targets for prosecution on the grounds of monopoly or restraint of trade.
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and:
Many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America
Working and living conditions remained precarious.
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT
Child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
The Molly Maguires
Aimed to right the perceived wrongs against Irish Coal Workers
The Great Railroad strike of 1877 was provoked by
Wage cuts that followed a depression
The great Railroad Strike of 1877
Ended when workers, who lacked organized bargaining power, returned to work.
Why did Chinese refer to the Geary Act of 1892 as the “Dog Tag Law”?
It required Chinese to carry their residential permit with them at all times or risk imprisonment and deportation.
The National Labor Union
Was influential in getting congress to enact an eight hour workday for federal employees.
The Knights of Labor
Called for men and women to have equal pay for equal work.
The greatest growth of the Knights of Labor took place
In the mid-1880’s, when the Union had several strikes against the railroads.
The Haymarket affair
Was blamed on seven anarchist leaders despite a lack of evidence.
The American Federation of Labor
Was primarily concerned with securing concrete economic gains.
Membership in the American Federation of Labor at First
Grew slowly
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor?
The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
The Homestead Strike
Was waged against a Carneige Company
Violence erupted at the Homestead Works in 1892 when
Henry Frick Tried to break a strike by bringing in Pinkertons
President Grover Cleveland’s response to the Pullman Strike was to
send federal troops to keep the trains running.
Mary “Mother Jones” Harris promoted all of the following EXCEPT
Temperance
Daniel De Leon
was the leading figure in the socialist labor party
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the US mainly by
Germans
The state that gave the highest percentage vote to the socialist Presidential candidate in 1912 was
Oklahoma
William D “Big Bill” Haywood
Was the leader of the Industrial workers of the World
CHAPTER 19
The major prophet of the New South gospel was
Henry W. Grady
Proponents of creating a “New South” argued that confederacy lost the Civil War because
It relied too much upon king cotton
Proponents go the New South believed that the South should
industrialize
In the late 1880s, the South experienced major increases int he production in all the following areas EXCEPT
Automobiles
The American Tobacco Company was
Dominating the US tobacco industry by the 20th century
Why was Alabama named the “Pittsburgh of the South”?
It was an iron center
Who was a prominent southern tobacco executive during the late 19th century?
James Buchanan Buke
The postwar South suffered from an acute shortage of
Capital
Fertilizers in the South
Accelerated soil depletion by enabling multiple plantings each year
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the Bourbons’ rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated
A lingering black voice in politics.
Black migrants to the West were called “Exodusters” because
They were often making their exodus from the South
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because
They generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies.
All of the following groups were prominent in the West during the late 19th century EXCEPT
Slaves
Buffalo soldiers were
Black soldiers who served in the west
The comstock Lode refers to
A mining discovery of gold and silver in Nevada
Why was hydraulic mining so damaging to the environment?
It caused tons of dirt and debris to clog rivers, kill fish, and pollute downstream farmland
In the battle at the Little Bighorn River in 1976
some 2,500 Indians annihilated a detachment of 210 soldiers
The indian tribe that defeated Custer and put up the greatest resistance to US domination was the
Sioux
By the late 19th century, Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Indians believed
the time had come to stop fighting and put a stop to his peoples needless deaths
In 1877, President Rutherford Hayes addressed the American approach to dealing with the Native Americans saying
“Indian wars’ have had their origin in broken promises and acts of injustice on our part”
Which of the following statements about the cowboys’ frontier is NOT true?
Blacks were generally not permitted to be cowboys
The first great cowtown was
Abilene, Kansas
“Cowtown” refers to
towns that grew up in the West as a result of the expanding cattle industry
Why was the expansions of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry?
As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of Western cattle, more Cowtowns were established in the West.
Much of the development of the Western plains has been shaped by its
arid climate
This export crop spurred growth in agriculture int he West during the late 19th century
Wheat
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women
More equal partners than their eastern counterparts
In much of the 19th century, women in Texas were legally prohibited from
Serving on Juries
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that
The frontier shaped American’s national character
The so-called “frontier thesis” is problematic because, among other things
It exaggerated the homogenizing effect go the frontier environment and virtually ignored the role of women.
CHAPTER 20
Which region of the US had the greatest proportion of Urban Dwellers?
Far West
One of the reasons mass transit was significant to developing cities was because
it allowed larger numbers of people to become commuters and live away from the central city
Tenement houses in NYC
had higher mortality rates than among the general population
As a result of overcrowding, sanitation, and ventilation problems in tenements
The mortality rate among the urban poor was much higher than the general population
All of the following contributed to epidemics, disease, and high mortality rates in the growing cities EXCEPT
The banishment of criminals to outside city limits.
What do Cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever all have in common?
They’re all water related diseases
Why did the US government open Ellis Island?
It was part of a federal effort to take charge of admitting immigrants to the country in light of the corruption that afflicted the city of NYs system
After 1890, most immigrants were
from southern and easter Europe
The American Protective Association
was a nativist group strongest in the Upper Mississippi Valley
Angel Island was
The equivalent of Ellis Island located off shore from SanFrancisco
The exclusion of Chinese Immigrants
originally called for a 10 year plan
Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 significant in American Immigration history?
It was the first federal law to restrict immigration on the basis of race and class
Middle and upper-class urban families spent much of their leisure time
together at home playing games or reading books
All of the following statements about newspapers in the 19th century are true EXCEPT
They usually did not support either of the political parties
Vaudeville Shows were popular because
they included something to please every taste, social class, and type.
Around 1900, saloons did all of the following EXCEPT
Serve as a great place for immigrant men to meet women
Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing
Great urban parks in America
All of the following emerged as popular spectator sports with mass appeal in urban areas in the late 19th century EXCEPT
shuffleboard
Facing severe restrictions in their free time, married working women often
found fellowship with other women on the public streets while tending to other responsibilities
Young, urban women eager for recreating often encountered far more obstacles then men because
parents and authorities tried to limit their access to “cheap amusements”
Baseball could lay claim to being the most democratic sport in the 19th century America because
people of all social classes attended the games
All of the following statements about football are true EXCEPT
It was invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts
As America industrialized and immigration increased, access to secondary education in the US
expanded dramatically
The spread of public education between the 1880s and 1900 reflected the desire to
Americanize immigrant children
The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890
Established and funded land-grant colleges
The first women’s college to teach by the same standards as the best of the men’s colleges was
Vassar
Women’s access to higher education by the end of the century
expanded significantly to the point that women made up 1/3 of all college students
William Graham Sumner
Argued in his book Folkways that it was a mistake for the government to interfere with established customs
Though both embraced “pragmatism”, William James and John Dewey differed in their approaches because
Dewey threw himself into progressive social movements, while James did not.
John Dewey’s “Instrumentalism”
Said that ideas were instruments for action
CHAPTER 21
When Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner labeled the post-Civil war era the “Gilded Age”, they implied that it was characterized by
Widespread Greed and corruption
One of the most important reasons that voter turnout was so high during the Gilded Age was that
Due to patronage and corruption by political machines, a lost every governments job was subject to the results of the latest election results
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
provided for appointment to a number of government jobs on the basis of competitive exams
Which of the following best describes Rutherford B. Hayes and civil service reform?
Hayes did not get civil service legislation through congress, but he set up his own rules for merit appointments
As president, Chester Arthur proved to be
Surprisingly competent and independent
The reason that Chester A. Arthur did not win a second term in 1884 is that
Republican part leaders were not pleased with his first terms record and didn’t nominate him to run for a second term.
During the campaign for the presidential election of 1884, many prominent Republican leaders and supporters left the party because
Letters were discovered linking candidate James G. Blaine to the railroads
Mugwumps were centered in
Large cities and major universities in the Northeast
Why did President Cleveland’s support of tariff reform hurt his chances at reelection in 1888?
It inspired business leaders who supported high tariffs to donate millions of dollars to the Republican campaign to defeat Cleveland.
To fend off Cleveland’s efforts to reduce the Tariff, ____ gave the Republicans over $3 Million in the election of 1888.
Business owners
With the Murchison letter, a California Republican used a lie to suggest a link between
Cleveland and British free traders
Benjamin Harrison lost the popular vote in the 1888 election. How was he able to win the presidency?
He earned a majority of the electoral votes.
Commodity prices during the Gilded Age declined in large part because
overproduction and international competition in world markets.
The supreme court decision Munn V. Illinois was significant to understanding the power of government to regulate industry because
It upheld the right of state and local governments to regulate industry essential to the public welfare.
The Independent National Party
was more commonly known as the Greenback Party
What distinguished the Farmers Alliances from the Granger Movement?
The grange was a national organization that tended to attract more prosperous farmers, while the Alliances were grass roots organizations filled with struggling farmers
What was the purpose of the “Subtreasury Plan”?
It allowed farmers to secure low-interest government loans
Which of the following individuals was NOT one of the leaders in the Farmers Alliance movement?
George H. Pendleton
All of the following were included in the 1892 Omaha platform of the peoples party EXCEPT
Returning to the gold standard
In the presidential election of 1892, the Populist candidate
won 22 electoral votes
Why did the Populists endorse an eight-hour workday and immigration restrictions as part of their 1892 platform?
They were hoping to win support from urban factory workers to complement their agrarian base.
One of the causes of the 1893 depression was failure of
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad
In the depression of 1893, unemployment hovered around
20%
In the 1896 campaign, William Jennings Bryan
spoke and campaigned all over the country
In the presidential election of 1896, all of the following amy be applied to William Jennings Bryan EXCEPT that he
Won after gaining the support of Theodore Roosevelt
One of the main reasons Mckinley defeated Bryan in the election of 1896 was that
Bryan got little support from factory workers in the cities
In the case of Plessy V. Ferguson, the supreme court
upheld a southern segregation law
Who was the first president of the National Association of colored women
Marry Church Terrell
Booker T. Washington
Offered an indirect endorsement of segregation
Economic prosperity was returning to the country by 1897 because of
The inflationary impact of various gold discoveries around the world.
Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing
Great urban parks in America
Frederick Law Olmsted is most famous for designing
Great urban parks in America