History Chapter 1

Plants and animals modified by selective breeding so as to serve human needs; animals will behave in specific ways and breed in Captivity.
Domesticated
Dramatic transformation in human history resulting from the change from foraging to raising crops and animals
Agricultural Revolution
Period during which humans used tools of stone, bone, and wood obtained food by gathering and hunting. 250,000-9000 BCE
animism
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Crop-raising done with hand tools and human power
horticulture
Group of Homo erectus with brains as large as those of modern humans that flourished in Europe and western Asia between 150,000 and 30,000 years ago
Neanderthals
Period beginning in 9000 BCE during which humans obtained food by raising crops and animals and continued to use tools primarily of stone, bone, and wood
Neolithic Era
Members of the family Hominidae that contains humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans
hominids
Differentiation of tasks by gender, age, training, status, or other social distinction
division of labor
An economic system based on herding flocks of goats, sheep, cattle, or other animals
pastoralism
Divisions between rich and poor, elites and common people, that have been a central feature of human society since the Neolithic era
social hierarchies
Social system in which men have more power and access to resources than women and some men are dominant over other men
patriarchy
Die-off of large animals in many parts of the world about 15,000-10,000 BCE cause by climate change and perhaps human hunting
megafaunal extinction
A style of life in which people gain food by gathering plant products, trapping or catching small animals and birds, and hunting larger prey
foraging
In arms of labor, horticulture required
more time and labor than foraging
Most of the food that Paleolithic foragers ate was
plants
One of the features that distinguishes Ardipithecus from earlier hominids are
canine teeth that were equal in size for both genders
In most Neolithic communities which group of people were the first to work out a law code
Priests
One of the results of endogamy was
differences in physical features and spoken language
Blumenach gave the name “Caucasian” to light-skinned Europeans because
he believed that the Caucasus Mountain were their original home
A specialist within the Paleolithic society who regularly received messages from the spirit world was the
shaman
The earliest Egyptian hieroglyph for weaving shows
a woman with a shuttle
One of the duties of the shaman was
healer
Paleolithic burial sites indicate that Paleolithic humans held the belief that all things and natural occurrences had
spirits
When a crop has been modified by selective breeding, it has been
domesticated
What was one of the consequences for Neolithic populations from
Women were not breast feeding as long as the contraceptive effect of breast feeding was lost
In early foraging societies, it is probable that how many hours were needed weekly to find food
Ten to twenty hours
Evolving better social skills might have been especially important for early human female who needed particular help with
child rearing
Which of the following is evidence that Neanderthals had an understanding of the symbolic meaning of death
They buried the dead with symbolic objects
The first labels that scientists gave to periods of human history were based on
The material used for tools
Horticulture refers to the growing of plants using
digging sticks
In modern, or recent, foraging societies, who in a community might be most responsible for hunting?
Men
Neolithic peoples built circular structures to predict
the movements of the stars
Pastoralism, a new way of life in which humans raised livestock, developed as a result of the natural herding instinct of
sheep
The first fully bipedal hominid known to paleontologists is
Australopithecus
What alley is created by mixing copper with another metal such as
Bronze
As Neolithic religions structures became more hierarchical, what was the purpose of the most important religious practice?
Ensuring fertility
Ninety-right percent of the DNA in modern humans is shared with what species?
Chimpanzees
The term forager is now used by historians instead of the traditional term
hunter-gatherer
Homo sapiens migrated to Australia and New Guinea by
simple rafts
Animal domestication changed human evolution by making humans able to digest
milk
How is the term species generally defined?
A group of organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring of both sexes
What discovery marks the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic
Agriculture
Paleolithic humans may have encouraged the growth of new plants
setting fires
According to theories based on mitochondria DNA evidence, Homo sapiens evolved first in
East Africa
Most skeletal remains of the Australopithecus have been found in
The Great Rift Valley
Residents of Catal Hüyük lived in houses that were
made of mud brick
Why is it difficult to get llamas and alpacas in South America to pull heavy loads?
The steep terrain of the Andes makes pulling loads difficult
Neolithic peoples used obsidian to make
knives
How did Homo erectus differ from modern humans
Homo erectus had a slightly smaller brain size than modern humans
Paleolithic humans tended to find mating partners from
outside their kinship bounds
Every society that has left a written record was
patriarchal

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