History Chapter 11 quizlet

History Chapter 11 quizlet

Fort Sumter
April 13th, was the beginning of the war. The union lost and confederates won
Border states
Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland. Allowed slavery but remained in the Union
First Bull Run Battle
-In Manassas, Virginia
-July 1861
-McDowell attacked Beauregard
-Stonewall Jackson wouldn’t let the Union win
north strengths
strengths:
1. European immigration = more men for fighting
2. Major inventions
3. Iron steam driven vessels
4. Financial and insurance industries
5. Better economy and food production
6. Recognition as an independent nation
7. better political
south strengths
1. better military leaders and military tradition
2. had a cause
3. importance of cotton got he world
4. fighting on home territory
5. Fighting a defensive rather than offensive war
Anaconda
Northern strategy
-Capture the confederate capital city of Richmond and the rest of Virginia – several failed attempts: 1st and 2nd bull run, peninsular campaign. Didn’t capture till 1865
-Invade Tennessee to move into the south – Came about later
-Strike along the Mississippi River to split the confederacy – SUCCESSFUL in 1862 we had everything except vicksburg
-Blockade all southern ports to prevent imports – SUCCESSFUL
war of attrition
-southern strategy
-holding out as long as possible and hope the north gave us
weapons of the civil war
submarines
balloons – used for reconnaissance work
gatling guns – machine guns
ironclads – ships with metal plates on them, small cannonballs would bounce off
the dictator
a weapon used by the north. a heavy mortar used to shell positions in the city from a distance of approximately 2 1/2 miles
other civil war military “firsts”
the minie ball, repeating rifles, heavy artillery, trench warfare, significant use of railroads, land mines, telescopic rifle sights
Ironclads
ships with metal plating on the hull to protect from cannon fire. USS monitor and CSS Merrimack
Monitor
north
merrimack
south
Battle of Fort Henry
-Led by General Grant
-A campaign through west Tennessee and the Cumberland River Valley to seize the fortifications along the waterway
-The Union gunboats accompanied the soldiers
-The union forced the fort to surrender
Fort Donelson
taken after fort henry by Grant
Battle of Shiloh
-also called pittsburgh landing
-1862
-The union was able to gain the advantage and win
war on the lower mississippi river
-1862
-admiral david farragut captured new orleans, baton, rouge, and mobile bay in alabama
The peninsular Campaign
-also called the 7 day battle
-led by McClellan
-The plan was to attack richmond, win and end war
-but McClellan waited before attacking to train his soldiers and prepare but he waited too long and Robert E. Lee had time to build up his army and protect richmond
-McClellan failed and was fired
McClellan was fired for the first time because..
the peninsular campaign failed
Battle at second bull run
pope went after Richmond again and the confederates crushed his army
battle of antietam
confederates went to the North and McClellan found the battle plans wrapped in a bundle of three cigars. The union chased the confederates back to the south but didn’t follow them and finish them off. McClellan was fired a second time
bounties
a bonus for joining the military
enrollment act
march 1863…the first draft in U.S. history
the substitute system
northern men could hire someone to take their place in military service for $300
the trent affair
-1861
-British steamer the Trent was stopped by a Union ship. Union arrested 2 confederate enjoys who were on board and britain threatened war. Lincoln released them
Dissenters
-people who disagreed
-Lincoln sent troops to stop protests or riots
-Lincoln suspended Habeas corpus
-Seized telegraph offices
Habeas corpus
a citizen’s constitutional right to have formal charges brought up against him in a court of law
Copperheads
Northern democrats who sympathized with the south. Lincoln’s major political opposition
Martial law
-Declared in Maryland a few weeks after fort sumter
-Federal troops occupied the city for the rest of the war after a riot erupted in Baltimore
The Emancipation proclamation
freed southern slaves, not border state slaves
contrabands
slaves who had either been captured by advancing union soldiers, or who had run away form their masters
54th regiment
first all black regiment who showed extreme bravery
Clara Barton
nurse in civil war, angel of the battle field, founded the American Red Cross
Andersonville Southern prison camp
In Georgia. Extremely poo conditions – food and supplies shortages
Gettysburg
July 1-3 1863. Lee retreated the second day after suffering major losses. READ SUMMARY I WROTE
Gettysburg address
Lincoln’s speech explaining his view of the war and why it was happening
Vicksburg
1863. Located on Mississippi River. Grant laid seige to the city and the confederates surrendered
The wilderness campaign
a series of battles took place in virginia with the goal of seizing richmond. Grant is marching toward Richmond but lee is continually attacking him
Sherman’s march to the sea
Sherman wanted to cut through the hearland of the south to destroy anything of military value in order to demonstrate that Southern Army couldn’t protect their own land
Atlanta surrender
September 1864. sherman decided to abandon his supply lines and march directly to the sea, foraging off the land to supply his troops, and burning anything the South might be able to use to make war
13th amendment
freed all slaves in the U.S.