History Chapter 9

History Chapter 9

In royal Georgia. who was the executive leader and appointed by the king?
royal governor
How did the king send new orders?
the royal governor
What could the royal governor do?
call legislation into session, grant land, commission ships, spend funds, and command the army
How many people were on the council which served as the upper house?
12
What was the lower house of Georgia called?
The Commons House of Assembly
What were the qualifications to be on the assembly?
white, male, own 500 acres
What were the qualification to vote on representatives?
50
Which system did Georgians have a lot more say under?
royal
Who was the first royal governor?
John Reynolds
What year did John Reynolds arrive?
1754
What year did the French and Indian war begin?
1754
Where did the original conflict of the French and Indian war begin?
Ohio River Valley
Who did the fighting of the French and Indian war mainly take place?
French and Great Britian
Who did the Indians side with in the French and Indian war?
France
Who was Georgia surrounded by that they thought might side with the French?
Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee
Who did the Spanish side with?
French
What important law did John Reynolds pass?
the Militia Act
What age group of males had to enroll for the militia act?
16-60
Why did people end up not liking John Reynolds?
he tried to run Georgia like the military
Who was in charge of firing or keeping the royal governor?
Board of Trade
When did Reynolds decide to leave the colony?
1757
Who was the second governor of Georgia?
Henry Ellis
What was Henry Ellis able to improve?
the defenses of the town
Government and religious districts
parish
governing board of the parish
vestry
What could the vestries do?
levy taxes, provide charity, maintain roads, and oversee churches
What was the official state church of the state of Georgia?
Church of England
Why did Ellis live?
the heat and humitity
Who was the third governor?
James Wright
Who was raised in South Carolina?
James Wright
How many plantations did James Wright own?
11
How many acres did James Wright own?
25,000
What was the Treaty the settled the effects of the French and Indian war?
Treaty of Paris
What treaty was signed between 4 southern colonies and the Cherokee and Creek?
treaty of Augusta
What did the Indians surrender in the Treaty of Augusta?
all land between the Ogeechee and Savannah Rivers
surrendar
cede
How many acres were open for settlement after the treaty of Augusta?
3 million
What kind of crops did all Georgian farmers grow?
corn, beans, peas, and potatoes
What kinds of animals were raised on the farms?
cows, chickens, pigs
What kind of plantations were cultivated in low-lying coastal areas?
rice
What 3 things were made from the sap of the pine tree?
tar, pitch, and turpentine
products designed especially for the use of the royal navy
Naval Stores
What things also provided a profitable business in Augusta?
skins and furs
What was eventually introduced as the main cash crop of Virginia and North Carolina?
tobacco
crop grown to be sold for income
cash crop
What were the 3 ways people in Georgia could get land?
buy it, receive it as a gift or inheritance, receive it as a grant from the colonial government
What day of the week were grants made?
Tuesday
How were grants determined?
size of the family
How many acres could each person ask for?
100 for the head of the family, 50 for each member of the household which includes slaves and indentured servants
granting land based on the number of household members
headright system
What land was the most desirable?
low-lying
What were the occupations of people besides farmers?
doctors, merchants, traders, lawyers
What were some artisan occupations?
coopers, cartwrights, blacksmiths, carpenters, balzers, tailors
people who teach children for a fee
tutors
What kind of ownership became more popular as more and more people made their way to towns?
hotel and restuarants
Who came with George Whitfield hoping to be a missionary and school teacher?
James Habersham
Who helped with the Bethseda Orphanage?
James Habersham
Who was a store owner who became a partner with James Habersham?
Francis Harris
What did James Habersham and Francis Harris decide to do that made them the first to do so?
bring goods directly from London
Who later served in the colonial government?
James Habersham
Who moved to Georgia in the 1750s from South Carolina and really helped boost the economy?
Puritans
What religious groups were given grants in Georgia?
Puritans, Quakers, Scots-Irish
those who move into a country to live
immigrants
What were people called who came from the back country of Virginia and the Carolinas?
crackers
illiterate, uneducated farmers who moved into the Georgia back country
crackers
What were 2 crops that were grown but required much work?
rice, indigo
Why did the planter not want to use indentured servants to plant their crops?
they were not a constant source of labor
Who proved to be the best choice for slaves?
Africans
Where were most Africans transported from?
Caribbean Islands (west Indies)
Besides the Caribbean Islands, where else did slaves come from?
South Carolina and the western countries of Africa
How many were on most plantations?
20 or more
What were some of the dangers that lurked in the water?
alligators, snakes, mosquitoes carrying diseases
What did most plantations operate under?
the task system
What is the task system?
the slaves were given a certain number of tasks for the day, once they finished their tasks they had free time to do what they wanted
Why did the owners only provide the bare necessities for his slaves?
they were usually working for profit
the amount left after all expenses are paid
profit
What were 2 skills that some slaves were able to learn?
smithing or sewing
What people had few if any slaves?
back country farmers
Series of laws governing what slaves and master could or could not do
slave codes
How many hours could a slave work every day?
16
What day of the week were slaves not allowed to work?
Sunday
What were slaves not allowed to be taught to do?
to read of write
Could the slaves leave?
not without permission
What could the slaves not do?
beat drums or blow horns
What was the most frequent form of resistance from slaves?
running away
Where most slaves rebellious?
no
Who had to come directly form England?
Ministers for the Anglican Church
Who was the most successful minister sent to Savannah during this period?
Bartholomew Zouberbuhler
What could most ministers not stand about America?
the hardships
What were 4 other religious groups in Georgia?
Lutherans, Puritans, Presbyterians, and Jews
What was the fast growing denomination especially in the backcountry?
Baptists
an organized religious group
denomination
What groups did church serve?
whites and blacks
What were the 2 major schools?
Bethesda Orphanage and the school started by the Lutherns
Who sent their sons to England to get an education?
Merchants and Wealthy men
What days were set celebrations?
the kings birthday
What were often times where people could get together?
weddings and funerals
What club was initially formed for artisans but planters and professionals were later allowed to join?
Union Society
What was one of the main purposes of the Union Society?
to preform charitable deeds
What were some clubs formed to handle?
special ceremonies for the special holidays