History Marking Scheme

History Marking Scheme

Junior Certificate History Exam 2012 (Higher Level) 180 marks 150 minutes  S. 1 Pictures (15 marks) (8 ? %) 3 Pictures with 3 questions each S. 2 Documents (15 marks) (8 ? %) 2 Documents with 4/5 questions each S. 3 Short Questions (20 marks) (11 %) 20 Short Questions – Do TEN at least S. 4 People in History (40 marks – 2 x 20) (22%) N. B. DO ONE option from A & ONE option from B Section A – Ancient Civilisations/ Rome/ Early Christian Ireland/ Middle Ages/ Renaissance

Section B – Age of Revolutions/ Industrial Revolution/ Political Change in 20th Century Ireland/ S. 5 Long Document (30 marks) (16 ? %) ONLY ONE of the following sections will come up. Reformation Age of Revolutions (America, France, Ireland) Age of Exploration Industrial Revolution & 19th Century Ireland (Famine) Plantations S. 6 (60 marks) (33 1/3%) N. B. International Relations in the 20th Century (30) Political Change in 20th Century Ireland (30) (+ Two other sections from Junior Cert Course e. g. The Middle Ages/ Prehistoric Ireland) SECTION 4: PEOPLE IN HISTORY (2 x 20 marks)

Do ONE OPTION from Part A & ONE OPTION from Part B Marking Scheme: SRS = Significant Relevant Statement (Each SRS = 2 marks) CM = 16 (8 x 2M) OM = Overall Mark OM = 4 VERY GOOD = 4M; GOOD = 3M; FAIR = 2M; POOR = 1M Guidelines: 1) ENSURE that you are writing from the correct perspective e. g. a supporter of a named revolutionary 2) Always include an introductory paragraph on the birth and early life of a named explorer/ reformer/ revolutionary leader etc. 3) Ensure that you STATE & EXPLAIN key concepts e. g. ‘Justification by Faith Alone’/ Republicanism/ Sailing West to reach the East Indies ) ALWAYS name & describe the widely-held beliefs of the time of the named person e. g. Church control over peoples’ religious beliefs/ Flat-Earth/ Ireland as part of the UK/ USA as a colony of England/ 5) NAME the group(s)/ organisation(s) who were founded by or supported the beliefs of the named person 6) ALWAYS NAME & DESCRIBE the impact of inventions/ innovations that aided the stated person & their beliefs/ revolution e. g. Printing Press/ Astrolabe/ Magnetic Compass/ Seed Drill/ Selective Breeding/ Factory System/ Steam Locomotive/ Home Rule/ IRB Fenianism/ Fascism/ Communism/ ) DESCRIBE & EXPLAIN how people and institutions reacted to the named person’s beliefs/ discoveries e. g. the Counter-Reformation/ superstitions of sailors during the Age of Discovery/ British refusal to accept Irish Independence/ 8) DESCRIBE the impact of the named person on later history itself: Spread of Protestantism throughout Europe/ Counter-Reformation/ Spanish Inquisition/ Discovery of American Continents/ New Colonies/ New ways of travelling/ Spread of Irish Republicanism/ Spread of Communism/ Spread of Fascism in Europe PART A OPTIONS (PEOPLE IN HISTORY) EARLY MODERN EUROPE & IRELAND A monk in an early Christian monastery in Ireland (2011/ 07/ 05) N. B. – A person living in a named ancient civilisation OUTSIDE of Ireland. (11/ 09/ 06/ 04) N. B. – A farmer living in ancient (pre-Christian) Ireland. (08/ 05) – A named religious reformer at the time of the Reformation (2011/ 08) N. B. – An archaeologist working on a dig. (2010/ 07/ 04) – The lord or lady of a medieval castle. (2010/ 08) – A knight living in a medieval castle. (05) N. B. A named Renaissance artist from OUTSIDE of Italy. (2009) N. B. – A named Renaissance artist or sculptor (07 (PART B)/ 04) N. B. PART B OPTIONS (PEOPLE IN HISTORY) Later Modern Europe & Ireland – A named leader on a voyage during the Age of Exploration (2011/ 09/ 06 (PART A) N. B. – A native Irish landowner who lost land in a named plantation during the 16th or 17th centuries. (2011) – A settler who received land during a named plantation in Ireland during the 16th or 17th N. B. entury. (08/ 06 (PART A)/ 04) – A mine or factory worker during the Industrial Revolution. (07) N. B. – A factory or mine owner during the Industrial Revolution (05) N. B. – A named leader in the struggle for Irish independence, 1900-1921. (2011/ 07/ 05) N. B. – A named leader involved in a revolution (America, France or Ireland) during the period, 1770-1815. (2010/ 05) N. B. – A supporter of a named revolutionary leader during the period, 1770-1803. 06) N. B. – A named leader involved in one of the crises during the rise of the superpowers (Berlin Blockade; Korean War; Cuban Missile Crisis). (2010/ 06) N. B. – A named political leader in the Republic of Ireland during the period, 1960-1985. (08 ) – An old person describing changes that have occurred in communications in Ireland since 1945. (04) A – A named religious reformer at the time of the Reformation. (20 marks) A specific reformer (eg: Luther, Calvin, Henry VIII) must be named or implied, but no marks are awarded for the reformer’s name.

If the name of the reformer is not mentioned, or is incorrect, but the material relates to a specific reformer, max. OM = 3. In the case of Luther, treat all material up to and including his ordination as ‘background’, i. e. 1 SRS max. In the case of Calvin, treat all material up to and including his conversion to Luther’s teaching as ‘background’, i. e. 1 SRS max. List of ‘abuses’, stated or explained, = 1 SRS. A belief/teaching explained = 1 SRS. A belief coupled with the relevant Catholic teaching = 1 SRS. 2 merely stated beliefs/teachings = 1 SRS. Teachings/beliefs = 3 SRSs max. ESSAY PLAN: NAME the reformer/ year of birth/ background & education – NAME & EXPLAIN the list of abuses within the Roman Church: – STATE the reformer’s beliefs and opinion of abuses in detail – NAME the steps he took to address these abuses – STATE & DESCRIBE the Church’s reaction to the reformer’s actions/ beliefs – NAME the reformer’s beliefs and EXPLAIN N. B. ***** – NAME any associates who aided the reformer – NAME any invention/ innovation that helped to spread the reformer’s beliefs – DESCRIBE the impact of the reformer’s teachings/ beliefs – DESCRIBE how the Church reacted to the reformer

A – A knight living in a medieval castle. – Castle or Knight only dealt with – 1 OM. – Name of a castle feature + description / function = 1 SRS. – Mere list of castle features without description/function – 2 features = 1 SRS. ESSAY PLAN: – NAME yourself (you are the knight) – STATE who your LORD is and your allegiance to him – DESCRIBE WHAT YOUR ROLE is in the CASTLE & HOW you defend it – NAME & DESCRIBE WHERE the LORD & HIS FAMILY LIVES (KEEP) – DESCRIBE 3 DEFENSIVE FEATURES OF the castle – DESCRIBE the 3 STAGES of becoming a medieval knight – DESCRIBE the tournaments & jousts that you regularly participate in DESCRIBE your belief in the ‘Code of CHIVALRY’ N. B. *** B – A supporter of a named revolutionary leader (USA, France, Ireland), 1770-1803. Do not award marks for naming the revolutionary leader. In the case of George Washington, treat all material prior to the First Continental Congress as ‘background’, i. e. 1 SRS max. In the case of Robespierre, treat all material prior to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 as ‘background’, i. e. 1 SRS max. In the case of Wolfe Tone, treat all material prior to the founding of the United Irishmen as ‘background, i. e. 1 SRS max.

In the case of Robert Emmet, treat all material prior to his involvement with the United Irishmen as ‘background’, i. e. 1 SRS max. ESSAY PLAN: – NAME the leader who you are supporting – NAME the country & time period (1765 – 1783) – STATE YOUR REASONS for supporting the revolutionary leader i. e. taxes/ interference from colonial power etc. – NAME the reasons why a revolution is taking place – NAME & DESCRIBE AT LEAST TWO incidents where conflict has occurred between the revolutionaries & the colonial power – DESCRIBE how the RULING POWER is reacting to THIS REVOLUTIONARY & Revolution NAME & DESCRIBE any documents or beliefs expressed by this revolutionary leader or revolutionary group – STATE what the revolutionary leader is aiming for i. e. a coming decisive battle B – A named revolutionary leader (USA, France or Ireland) No marks for the revolutionary leader’s name. – If the material clearly relates to a particular revolutionary leader without the person being named, mark on its merits. – In the case of George Washington, treat all material prior to the First Continental Congress as background, i. e. 1 SRS. In the case of Robespierre, treat all material prior to the outbreak of Revolution in1789 as background. – In the case of Wolfe Tone, treat all material prior to the founding of the United Irishmen in 1791 as background. – In the case of Robert Emmet, treat all material prior to his involvement with the United Irishmen as background. ESAY PLAN: SAME AS ABOVE EXCEPT FROM the REVOLUTIONARY LEADER’S POINT OF VIEW B – A factory/mine owner during the Industrial Revolution in Britain, c. 1850. – If the answer is exclusively from the perspective of the factory worker, Max CM = 8 Max OM =0.

ESSAY PLAN: (*** YOU are the factory owner) – NAME the factory/ mine owner – STATE what type of factory/ mine you own – NAME the part of England your factory is in – DESCRIBE what your factory produces and where you sell/ exports your goods – NAME & DESCRIBE how and where you get your raw materials i. e. coal, water-power etc. – NAME the inventions that you use in your factory – DESCRIBE how you transport your raw materials INTO your factory and how you transport your goods OUT of your factory – DESCRIBE the workers who work in your factory, what hours they work, their working conditions and pay. DESCRIBE the living conditions of your workers and HOW you have attempted to make their lives better – STATE what hobbies or leisure activities you like i. e. gambling, betting on bare-knuckle fights etc. A factory/ mine worker during the Industrial Revolution (As above EXCEPT from the WORKER’S PERSPECTIVE) B – A named leader in Irish independence struggle, 1916-1923. – No marks for the leader’s name. – Background material i. e. pre-1916 = 1 SRS; Post-1923 material = 1 SRS. ESSAY PLAN: – STATE where and when the leader was born – STATE the background of the leader i. e. education/ work etc. NAME the organisation that the leader joined and WHEN – NAME other people who the leader was associated with – STATE the political beliefs of this leader – STATE & DESCRIBE what role the leader played in the Irish Independence struggle e. g. Minister for Finance in the 1st Dail N. B. ** – STATE whether or not this leader was part of the Sinn Fein delegation to London for the Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations of 1921 – STATE whether this leader was PRO-TREATY or ANTI-TREATY in 1922/ 1923 – GIVE THEIR REASONS for being PRO-TREATY or ANTI-TREATY – DESCRIBE the rest of the leader’s career

Section 5 Long Document Question (30 marks) – Famine, Emigration & De-population in 19th Century Ireland (2004) – Exploration, Vespucci & Impacts on Indigenous Populations (2005) – Famine, Emigration & De-Population in 19th Century Ireland (2006) – Reformation, Papal Bull & Counter-Reformation (2007) – French & Irish Revolutions in 18th Century (2008) – Plantations in 17th Century Ireland (2009) – Exploration, Spanish & Portuguese (2010) – Rural Ireland & Industrial England in the 19th Century (2011) Structure of Question: Part A – Answers derived from 1st Source. USE QUOTATIONS & EVIDENCE from Source (8-10 marks)

Part B – Answers derived from 2nd/ 3rd Sources USE QUOTATIONS & EVIDENCE from Source or Contextual/ Background Information require on topic (8 – 10 marks) Part C – Answer ONE from 3 Options Contextual/ Background Information required on topic (10 – 12 marks) Part C: Usually requires a short paragraph answer worth 10 or 12 marks. It is important that you write at length on whatever topic you are asked e. g. ‘Problems faced by Irish Immigrants abroad’ or the ‘Counter-Reformation in Europe’.

Ensure that you have at least 5 – 6 clear points of information on each of the following topics: (next page) (Check the relevant webpages on the History site under Junior Certificate History for examples of these) Part C Examples: • Counter-Reformation • Consequences of the Reformation for Ireland • Urbanisation, Health, Lifestyle & Pastimes of Industrial England • Impact of Famine & Problems faced by Immigrants abroad • Conflict between European Powers as a consequence of Exploration • Impacts on indigenous Populations by Explorations • Religious, Political & Cultural Impacts of Plantations in Ireland Brehon Law, Language & Customs • Causes & Impacts of French, American & Irish Rebellions/ Revolutions • Reign of Terror Section 6 (60 marks) Do two options from (A), (B), (C) and (D). (2 x 30 marks) Political Developments in 20th Century Ireland Question divided into 2 or 3 parts: short questions followed by 10 or 12 mark questions. The ten mark questions to be prepared are as follows: – 1) Home Rule Crisis 1912 – 1914 2) 1916 Rising 3) 1918 General Election 4) War of Independence 1919 – 1921 5) Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 (& split in Sinn Fein) 6) Irish Civil War 1922 – 1923 7) Cumann na Gaedheal Government 1923 – 1932 ) DeValera & ‘Dismantling the Treaty’ 1932 – 1938 9) The ‘Emergency (neutrality) 1939 – 1945 10) The 1st Inter-Party Government 1948 – 1951 11) 1950’s Ireland 12) Sean Lemass & 1960’s Ireland (1st Programme for Economic Expansion) – Also Northern Ireland 1) N. Ireland during WWII 2) Civil Right Movement in late 1960’s 3) The ‘Troubles’ For key terms and short questions, check the webpage ‘Political Developments in 20th Century Ireland’ on the History website under Junior Cert. History International Relations in the 20th Century Question divided into 2 or 3 parts: short questions followed by 10 or 12 mark questions.

Ten mark questions to be prepared are as follows: 1) Lenin & Russian Revolution 1917 2) Treaty of Versailles 1919 3) Mussolini’s Italy 4) Nazi Rise to Power 1927 – 1933 5) Nazi Germany 1933 – 1939 (Totalitarianism & Propaganda) 6) Hitler’s Foreign Policy 1933 – 1939 7) World War II 8) The Cold War: a) Berlin Blockade b) Korean War c) Cuban Missile Crisis For key terms and short questions, check the webpage ‘International Relations in the 20th Century’ on the website under Junior Cert. History ———————– Reformation Rural Ireland, Famine & Industrial England in 19th Century Age of Exploration Plantations Age of Revolutions