History of Arts Notes

WEEK 1 PREHISTORIC

Hybrid figure, mammoth ivory, ca. 40,000-28,000 BCE – To make: split dry mammoth tusk, scarpe into shape (using sharp blad) – half human, half animal= human dressed as animal for hunting purpose Bear, Chauvet Cave, ca. 30,000-28,000 BCE – hand paintings, hand silhouettes depict animals – took advantage of walls – eg. bump creates bear’s shoulder – discovered in 1994 So-called “Venus of Willendorf,” limestone, ca. 28,000-25,000 BCE – no naturalism- stress fertility emphasizing reproductive features= fertility object Spotted horses and human hands, Pech-Merle Cave, ca. 16,000-15,000 BCE – shamanism- belief in spirit world accessed through alternative states of consciousness – hand dots- can find how many artists painted in one cave – saliva, water, blood- MIXED- applied with brush, finger, moss, chewed stick, feather Rhinoceros, wounded man, and bison, Lascaux Cave, ca. 15,000-13,000 BCE – sense of power – pathetic, no power – powerful Hall of the bulls, Lascaux Cave, ca. 5,000-10,000 BCE – human never lived in Lascaux cave (no objects, remains ; instead; bear bones, torches) – not optical images; instead;

COMPOSITE- many details of animal Stonehenge, ca. 2,100 BCE, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England – marked passing of time/seasons – megalith(stone forming prehistoric monument) in circles= CROMLECHS – simple structure= post and lintel Babylonian deed of sale, clay with cuneiform writing, ca. 1,750 BCE – refined pictogram pressed in series of wedge-shaped signs= CUNEIFORM – used for dministrative accounts ; poetry – invention of writing WEEK 2 SUMERIA;EGYPT Remains of the “White Temple” on its ziggurat, ca. 3500-3000 BCE Uruk, Iraq – Tripartite layout – from 3sides- can see ceremonial ascent of priest ; leaders – stairs- counter clockwise around mound= indirect approach= Mesopotamian temple archietecture Cylinder seal of priest-king feeding sacred sheep, ca. 3300 – cylindrical made of stone with hole running through centre – design carved into surface of seal- when pressed in soft clay= reverse image unfold

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Royal Standard of Ur, ca. 2600 BCE – bottom= charioteers pulled bu oagers. Riding over enemies – middle= prisoners stripped of clothing ; armor are escorted – top= prisoners brought to central figure- head is off canvas – banquet= top= seated for banquet, cups raised to music played by harp – PANELS represent Kingship Prince Rahotep and Nofret, 2580 BCE – carved from limeston- softer than diorite- painted skin tones, hair, garments, jewelry – rahotep is government official and wife is dependent of king- ritualized gesture in full frontality – rigid frontality norm for royal and elite sculptures

Pyramids of Menkaure, 2533-2515 BCE, Kafra, 2570-2544 BCE, and Khufu, 2601-2528 BCE, Giza pyramid only a part of necropolis- city of dead – King djoser had a mudbrick palace made of wood, mud brick, reeds – has archeitect which suggest how important buildling is – stones cut precicly so that they can interlock together and create smooth surface – pyramid 440ft tall- 45 stories Menkaure and Queen Khamerernebty II, 2515 BCE – carved in one piece with an upright back slab, rigid frontality – almost identical height, left foot forward King is more muscular and half nude and queen draped in thin dress hemmed at ankles= smooth surfaces and high polishestablish appearance of unity – man both arms down and woman arms around man- dependent Seated Scribe, ca 2400 BCE, limestone -frontal, stiff in traditional poses – in earlier society- fat and marks of age could be signs of honour- experience – sallow cheeks, sagging jaw, loose stomach= social status: succeed in career, eats well, relies on subordinates to do physical work on his behalf Head of an Akkadian ruler, ca.

2250-2200 BCE naram-sin (sargan’s grandson) – stretched Akkadian empires – explited art to reflect and establish power= abstract hair and beard= strong symmetry= contrl and order – damage done maybe by Medes- who invaded Nineveh= gaughe eyes, ears and nose hacked= as if really attacking person Great Ziggurat of King Urnammu, Ur, ca. 2100 BCE – Mud bricks: clay mixed with vegetable and straw to prevent clay cracking when dry – mud mixture put into wodden frames- knocked out and backed under sun – joined wall with wet clay – not durable so sealed with BITUMEN buttresses= articulate walls= impression of strength, lines= add dynamic energy, 100 steps Stele with the Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1760 BCE – TOP- hammurabi appears in relief- standing with arm raised in greeting before the enthroned sun-god Shamash- god’s shoulders emanate sun rays- god extends hand, holding rope ring and the measuring rod of kingship= THIS GESTURE unifies scene’s composition and purpose of the two leading characters – smaller scale of Hammurabi compared to seated god= “shepherd” rather than god himself

Female figurine, 12th-13th dynasties (ca. 1650 BCE), faience – object placed in tombs along with dead – from tomb in Thebes, represents a schematized woman- legs stop at knees, restrict her mobility/ or legs maybe not essential to her function – painted cowrie-shell girdle to emphasize belly and hips, delineate breats and pubic area= function may have been as fertility objects, enhance family continuity – blue-green color of faience associated with fertility, regeneration and goddess hathor Temple of Hatshepsut, ca. 478-1458 BCE – New Kingdom funerary temple= Hatshepsut- female king – crowning pyramid- mastaba and terraces extending into cliff face – ascending white limestone courts, linked by wide ramps on a central axis – trees lined entrance way and paired sphinxes faced each other Queen Hatshepsut kneeling, ca. 1473-1458 BCE – Hatshepsut kneeling as she makes offering – because kingship is male office, she wears regalia of a male king(kilt, false beard and nemes headdress(striped cloth worn by kings))

Akhenaten and his family, 1355 BCE – akhenaten with family- consort Nefertiti and 3 oldest daughters – sun life-giving beams radiate downward with hands at their terminals- reed columns suggest scene is within garden pavilion stocked with wine jars – king and wife sit facing each othe on stools- hold daughters, on laps, in arms, uniting composition with animated gestures- contrast to STATIC quality of scenes of other times – emphasis on daughters’ childishness marks change

Akhenaten, 1353-1335 BCE – break dramatically long-established conventions for depicting royal subjects- different proportions- narrow shoulders, lacking musculature, marked potbelly, wide hips, generous thighs, large lips, distinctive nose, chin, narrow eyes make face recognizable. Queen Tiy, 1352 BCE Akhenaten’s mother- used dark wood of yes tree with precious metls and semiprecious stones for details – downturned mouth and modeled lines running from sides of nose to mouth= advancing years – initially queen wore gold jewlry and silver headdress decorated with golden cobras= identify her with funerary goddesses Isis and Nepthys – wig embellished with glass beads topped with plumed crown Queen Nefertiti, 1348-1335 BCE – Nefertiti’s bust- plastered over limestone core and painted – left eye not inished- bust remained unfinished but elegance still derives from sculptor’s command of geometry The weighing of the heart and judgment of Osiris The Book of the Dead of Hunefer, 1285 BCE books of dead – instructions on how to escape the great beast and make it through afte rlife – needed to go ceremony and weight their heart with ostrich feather- if free from sin- heart should be lighter than ostrich feather Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, ca. 1279-1213 BCE Ramesses commissioned most architectural projects- including monumental temple – king marked his claim to the land of Kush in Lower Nubia(origin of old, viroy and enimal pelts) – between statues’ legs- small figures represent member of royal family.

INTERIOR- colossal figures of Ramesses- 32ft Fugitives crossing a river, ca. 883-859 BCE – walls covered with large scale stone reliefs – narrative images- painted in places for emphasis- glorified king with detailed depictions – archer and two women look on with hands raised NO RELATIVE SCALE, primary purpose of scenes to recount specific enemy conquests Gate of Citadel of Sargon II, with lamassu, 742-706 BCE (photo taken during excavation) – lamassu- great guaridian figures – powerful and terrifying deities to anyone who might enter – embody king’s fearful authority- tall horned headdresses, deep-set eyes, powerful muscularity of legs and bodies Reconstruction of Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, ca. 21-705 BCE – Sargon II had plan for city of Dur Sharrukin where he had royal residence – unexcavated but estimate to cover a square mile – enclosed within an imposing mud-brick wall – 30 court yards- 200 rooms Lion hunt, ca. 645 BCE – king slay lion – way of demonstrating power over beast – EGYPT- royal lion hunts were events that took place in palace grounds – roal attendants released animals from cages into a square formed by troops with shields – ritual symbolic showcasing king’s strength and serving as metaphor for military skills

Palette of King Narner, ca. 310-3125 BCE – TOP CENTER: hieroglyphs spell out narmer’s name – BESIDE hieroglyphs= cow heads represent sky goddess – LEFT= King Narmer holds enemy by hair and raises mace- sign of kingship – KING- wears white crown of Upper Egypt and belt of kilt hangs tail of bull- symbole of power kings wear as part of ceremonial dress-larger scale establish authority – BOTTOM-enemy stripped of clothing- humiliateion – BEHIND king attendant carries king’s sandals RIGHT of Narmer appears falcon holding rope – OTHER SIDE- king wears red crown of LOWER egypt- by sandal carrier and long-hared figure= FOLOWS FOUR people holding something to inspect bodies of prisoners with their heads between their legs – CENTRAL register= 2 animals roped by male figure- twist long necks to frame a circle in composition – symmetrical, balanced= ma’at – LOWER- bull rep. king attack city and tramples down enemy – COMMUNICATE BY!!!! ombine several diff types of signs on one object – some literal representations and symbolic representations- bull=strength – MESSAGE: king embodied unified UPPER and LOWER EGYPT- though human, he occupied divine office shown by placement of name in sky WEEK 3 GREEK Amphora with meander pattern and funeral, ca. 750 BCE – vase from cemetery- known as Dipylon Vase- one of a group of large vessels Athenians used as funerary markers over burials- holes in its base allowed mourners to pour liquid offerings during funerary rituals- ashes of dead inside vases placed

Black-figured amphora Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice, ca. 540-530 BCE – black-figured technique- painted design in black silhouette against reddish clay- incised details into design with needls, painted white and purple over black to make chosen areas stand out – Athenian amphora- signed by Exekias- both potter and painter- painting shows Homeric heroes Achilles and Ajax playing dice- episode not exist in surviving literary sources- two figures lean on their spears; shields stacked behind them – black silhouettes create rhythmical composition, symmetrical around table in center

Kouros, ca. 540-525 BCE (means youth) – male- slim, broad-shouldered, left leg forward, arms by side, clenched fists, shoulders, hips and knees are level Kore, ca. 530 BCE (wearing a peplos) (means maiden) – female- -BOTH HAVE stylized wig-like hair, show techniques and proportional systems used by Egyptian sculptors- rigid, frontal, four distinct sides, no backslab, (GREEK: space between forms, public nudity acceptable for males/not females. EGYPT: figures embedded in stone. forced nudity on slaves) Red-figured amphora: Euthymides, Dancing revelers, ca. 510-500 BCE – black-fig. imit artist to incision for detail- develop red-figured tech- scence not dependent on profiles- freedom with brush translates into freedom of movement in dancing- range of poses, twisting bodies, age of intensive and self-conscious experimentation Red-figured kylix (wine cup) Douris painter, Eos and Memnon, ca.

490-480 BCE – Eos, goddess of dawn lifts limp body of her dead son, Memnon whom Achilles killed- Douris(maker)- traces contours of limbs beneath drapery and balances vigorous outlines with more delicate strokes- dead weight of memnon’s body contrats with lift of Eos’ wings Kritios Boy’, ca. 480 BCE (marble) – contrapposto – weight shifted creating asymmetry in two sides of his body. Knee of forward leg is lower than the other, right hip is thrust down and in, left hip up and out, axis of body not straight vertical line, reversed S-curve – stands at ease- CHIASTIC POSE (balanced asymmetry of relaxed natural stance) – muscles suggest motion Temple of Hera II at Paestum, ca. 460 BCE building made of DORIC order simple capital, no base, columns sit directl on step platform – columns look massive, little space between them – archeitects worried about rooms falling down Zeus or Poseidon, ca. 460-450 BCE, bronze – nude bronze from sea near Greek coast- 7ft tall- depicts spread-eagled male figure in act of throwing- Zeus casting thunderbolt or Poseidon throwing his trident. -sculptor catures and contrasts vigorous action and firm stability- express god’s awe-inspiring power.

Shows artist’s understand of bodies in motion and also knowledge of strength of bronze= allow god’s arms to stretch out without support. Warrior, ca. 450 BCE, found in the sea off of Riace, Italy – over-life-size figure found in sea near Riace- used lost-wax technique- not just cutting away stone- artist build clay model- where marble absorb light, bronze surface reflect= explore surface texture for hair and skin Roman copy after a bronze original by Myron, Diskobolos, ca. 50 BCE – bronze, Myron condensed a sequence of movements into single pose, achieved through violent twist of torso that brings the arms into same place as legs -Pose conveys essence of action by presenting coiled figure in perfect balance Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, 447-432 BCE – building made when athens was at war- created by money in military- dominant temple on Akropolis- Perikles conceived it to play focal role in cult of Athena- chief center of cult practice remained on Erechtheion(north f Parthenon)- built of gleaming white marble- Architects Iktinor and Kallikrates – OCTASTYLE(eight-column arrangement)- continuous sculpted frieze runs around all sides in variation of Ionic style- depicts procession moving from west-east- horsemen jostle with musicians,water carriers, sacrificial beasts- figures overlap to create illusion of crowd- encircling colonnade gave impression that visitor can approach temple from all sides.

– appears less massive than TEMPLE OF HERA II at PAESTUM= columns more slender, capitals smaller and less flaring-cornice projects less. East freize of the Parthenon, ca. 440 BCE part of festival held to honor Athena- exalts mortal Greeks by deicting them in space reserved for divine and mythological scenes. – cloth is a new robe for Athena(woven by Athenian girls and depicting Athen’as triumph against giants in gigantomachy) Model of Pheidias, Athena Parthenos, ca. 438 BCE – enormous statue of Athena by sculptor PHEIDIAS- stood with one hand supporting a personification of Victory, and shield resting against her side. Figure out of ivory and gold(combo known as CHRYSTELEPHANTINE)- supported by wooden armature- valuable Three goddesses, from the east pediment of the Parthenon, ca. 38-432 BCE – Hestia, Dione and Aphrodite (recent, Leto, Artemis, Aphrodite)- pediment figures embedded in building- forms are strong and solid- masterpiece of swirling drapery, garments cling to bodies beneath as if wet- drapery not follow lines of body- there is twisting around legs(struggle with them) Temple of Athena Nike, 427-424 BCE, Akropolis, Athens (ionic order) – has a bas- thinner columns- taller- fluting on columns is like womens robe or skirt- base is like shoes- more feminin and elegant- tiny temple of athena nike- godess of wisdom and war- nike= Victoria

Akropolis, Athens, 421-405 BCE – dedicated to goddess Athena Erechtheion, 421-405 BCE, Akropolis, Athens – Mnesikles’ project-architext had to deal with difficult terrain- built to serve several religious functions- included four rooms and basement on western side- two porches attached to its flanks- one dedicated to Poseidon face north and is main entrance- smaller one juts out toward Parthenon

Erechtheion, Porch of the Maidens 421-405 BCE, Akropolis, Athens – 6 caryatids of columns support roof- represent women of Caryae (city-state in Peloponnese that formed alliance with Persians in Persian wars)- when war over, Greeks took women as slaves- architects THUS designed images of these women to bear the burden of their state’s dishonor in perpetuity Nike, from the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike, ca. 10-407 BCE – Nike taking off sandles-about to step on holy ground-wings keep her stable so she performs awkward act with elegance and ease- Pheidian style evident in deeply cut folds of her “wet look” garments clinging to her body and fall in deep swags between her legs. Grave stele of Hegeso, ca. 410-400 BCE – Pheidian style recognizable in drapery and also in smooth planes of faces- delicacy of carving clear in forms fathest away from viewer- servant’s left arm, veil behind Hegeso’s right hsoulder= relief merges with background strengthening illusion that background is empty space rather than solid surface.

Roman copy after an original by Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos original from ca. 340-330 BCE – first nude monumental statue of godess in Greek world- about to bathe, or rising from bath- right hand, she covers nudity in gesture of modesty, grasping for robe with her left- head slightly turned so does not engage viewer’s gaze directly Roman copy after an original by Praxiteles, Hermes and the infant Dionysius original from ca. 320-310 BCE – Hermes holding infant Dionysos- sandals=roman in style- chiastic pose is exaggerated and creates fuly relaxed curve of torso- youthful more than athletic

WEEK 4 ROMAN & ITALY Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE – Republican practice of commissioning narrative reliefs to record specific events- reliefs mounted on public buildings and monuments(ara pacias augustae) Imperial procession, Ara Pacis Augustae, 13-9 BCE below: Parthenon frieze, ca. 440 BCE – inclusion of women and small children= denote importance of dynasty as well as referring to moral legislation Augustus enacted to promote child-birth among the elite. Roman copies of a Greek original by Lysippos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, original late 4th C.

BCE – to have idealized quality- planes are smooth especially around brow and individuality emerge in unruly hair, raised at fron (cowlick) and twist of head- does not engage with a viewer- has distant gaze The Abduction of Persephone, wall painting in Tomb 1, Vergina, ca. 340-330 BCE – from small tomb at Vergina- subject=abduction of Persephone- appropriate to funeral setting-Pluto-carries away Persephone to be queen-pluto seizes Persephone into speeding chariot-her handmaiden rearing back in fright The Battle of Alexander and the Persians mosaic copy of ca. 00 BCE of a Hellenistic painting of ca. 315 BCE – roman copies of Greek wall painting- may be copy of Philoxenos’ painting- depicts Darius and the fleeing Persians on right and damaged left-hand portiong depict figure of Alexander- mosaic- follows four—color scheme(yellow,red,black,white)- widely used in late 4th century Portrait, called “Brutus,” ca. 300 BCE rome- develop upon greek style-form art that became popular in this period= REALISTIC PORTRAIT lips thin, lips one over the other, overbite= similar notion of greek emphasis on individual = maybe a republican ideal, showing elf as god, flaws, suggest philosophical stance Epigonos of Pergamon (? ), Dying Gaul trumpeter, perhaps a Roman copy of a bronze original of ca.

230-220 BCE – found in Sanctuary of Athena on Akropolis of Pergamon- sculptor identifies enemy as Gaul through his bushy hair and moustache and by torque around his neck(braided gold band)- dies sinking quietly to ground/struggling to prop imself up as blood pours from wound in chest. Drunken old woman and market woman, Roman copies of originals of ca. 00 BCE – depict unidealized and realistic everyday life- genre=Hellenistic realism- Roman- crouches on ground, clasping wine bottle, head flung far back-wrinkles cover face, skin on her exposed shoulder and chest sags with age- wears buckled tunic= identify as member of wealthy social class- (other sculptures of this kind focus on rustic life on poor) Nike of Samothrace, ca. 190 BCE – celebrates naval victories-nike-means victory- of Eudamos- Rhodian marble of sculpture’s base suggest sculpture comes from Rhodes.

Victory goddess seems to be landing on prow of ship as if to bestow crown of victory upon Eudamos- maybe about to take flight, massive wings soar out behind her, wings make statue appear weightless despite mass of stone- neither leg holds the body’s full weight. Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, ca. 166-156 BCE – Eumenes II or Attalos II built it to commemorate territorial victories over Pontos and Bithynia and establishment of a grand victory festival(Nikephoria). Altar stood high on a podium with large rectangular encloser defined by Ionic colonnade. wide staircase at fron provided access. Stood on Pergamene Akropolis- reconstructed in Berlin-frieze encircle base-extends 400ft in length and 7ft in height-subject is battle of Gods and Giants Athena and the giants, from the frieze of the Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, ca. 166-156 BCE – muscular bodies rush at each other, overlapping, entwining, wings beat and barments blow in wind or twist around those they robe, texture contrasts with smoothness of giants’ flesh. -giants’ emotion – agonize in torment of defeat- brows creased in pain

Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Praeneste, early 1st C. BCE -in italy- made to celebrate military victory of sola- oracular center where priests interpreted divine will- architec used concrete to mold structures over entire surface of hillside and to craft spaces- sanctuary ascend in 7 levels- BOTTOM=basilica&senate house- UPPOER TERRACE=rose in grand crescendo-4TH=colonnaded exedrae framed altars Wall paintings from the villa of Publius Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, mid 1st.

Century BCE – second style- employed architectural vistas to open wall into a fantasy realm suggest another world beyond room Portrait of a man, early 1st century BCE – wrinkles cover face, etching deep crags into cheeks and brows- depicted distinguishing marks=warts,hooked nose, receding hairline Temple of Portunus, Rome, ca. 80-70 BCE – borrow Greek forms- in Italic style- stands on podium and engaged lateral columns emphasize frontal approach- Ionic coluns have slender proportions of Classical Greek temples Scenes of Dionysiac mystery cult, Villa of the Mysteries, Pompei, ca. 0-50 BCE – 1st of MAU’S FOUR STYLES OF PAINTING-(4 styles of roman wall painting=: used paint and stucco to imitate expensive colored marble paneling- lower part of walla(the dado) and upper section above the cornice level are painted in rich mottled colors to resemble exotic stone

Wall painting of a garden, Villa of Livia at Primaporta, ca. 20 BCE fresco -dining room- painted on all of the walls and ceiling so it looks like you are in a garden- frescos on all sides- light hitting different kinds of leaves- birds- leaves move in the wind- moving sensation Augustus of Primaporta, possibly a later copy of an original of ca. 0 CE – depicted as ageless youth- appears in battledress with arm raised in gesture of address- – romans clothe sculptures, relaxed gesture- armor- pictures of his family, battles- represent life in armor- showing status- romans show specificperson- more political purpose, leading war with hand, armor, heigh preist, leader-CUPID=rides dolphin- acts as strut to strengthen marble- dolphin eoked sea Wall paintings, Ixion room, House of the Vettii, Pompei, 63-79 CE – fourth style- united aspects of all three preceding styles tocreate extravagant effect- combine imitationmarble paneling, framed mythological scenes resembling panel pictures set into wall Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompei, 2nd century BCE-79 CE – eilte Roman house-distinct feature=atrium-square of oblong central hall lit by opening in roof with shallow pool(impluvium) in ground to collect rainwater-airy quality=grandeur upon house, romans kept portraits of ancestors

WEEK 5ROMAN & BYZANTINE Icon of the Madonna Enthroned, late 13th c. CE, tempera Interior, Cathedral of Monreale, Italy, 1180-1190 CE Interior, St. Mark’s, Venice, begun 1063 CE Dome with mosaic of the Pantocrator, 11th c. CE Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece Crucifixion, mosaic, 11th c. CE Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece Emperor Justinian and his attendants, 547 CE mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna Empress Theodora and her attendants, 547 CE mosaic, San Vitale, Ravenna Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (previously Constantinople), 532-7 CE San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 CE Interior, San Vitale, Ravenna, 526-47 CE

Icon of Christ, 6th c. CE, encaustic Iconoclasm Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-50 CE Good Shepherd, mosaic, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, 425-50 CE The Good Shepherd and Stories of Jonah, 4th c. CE Catacomb of Ss. Pietro e Marcellino, Rome Constantine the Great, early 4th century CE – large and deeply carved eyes- see something beyond this world-soft modeling to cheeks and mouth-more natural than tetrach-full cap of hair and absense of beard it reference to Trajan and Augustus Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 350 CE Interior of Old St. Peter’s, Rome, built 324-400 CE (drawing by Jacopo Grimaldi, 1619) – Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312-315 CE people of rome dedicated triple-bayed arch to Constantine near colosseum to celebrate 10 year anniversary- largest imperial arches- little of sculptural relief on its surface was specifically designed for this monument- – free-standing Dacian capties on attic originated in Trajan’s Forum as did Trajanic Frieze on ends of attic and inside central bay- Arch of Constantine, 312-315 CE detail of Hadrianic rondels and Constantinian relief Constantine addressing a crowd, Arch of Constantine, 312-15 CE – figures crowd the scene- heads are disproportionatel large- bodies stocky- poses unnaturally rigid- lines cared on flat surface render anatomical details- second row of heards arranged above first indicates recession- The Tetrarchs, 305 CE, porphyry during tetrachy-portraiture took radically abstract quality- two porphyry sculptural groups mounted on columns- each group shows two tetrachs in elaborate military dress with bird-headed sword hilts and flat pannonian caps=represent powerful Illyrian officer class-proportions are squat and nonnaturalistic, facial features abstract rather than individualized.

=portrait suggest authority resides in office of emperor not in who holds office. =sameness of portraits underlines the tetrachs equality-porphyry-hard Egyptian stone reserved for imperial use Hadrian’s Villa, Tivoli, 130-138 CE – emperor built magnificient residence for self- built on site of Republican villa- villa’s form follo natural line of landscape but massive earthworks rearranged terrain to accommodate architecture – water is a common feature- in pools, running channels=adding sound,motion,reflecting light, offering coolness in summer heat-canal has been known as CANOPUS Pantheon, Rome, 117-125 CE Augustus’ right-han dman=Agrippa built first Pantheon-name intended it as temple to gods- fire destroyed this temple and Domitian built reconstruction- Pantheon now work of Trajan’s architect=APOLLODORUS- completed in Hadrian’s reign-

In roman times pantheon stood raised on a podium at south end of large rectangular court-octastyle facade- dome pierced with 27ft hole(OCULUS open to sky)- 143ft(total interior height is also dome’s diameter=sphere=eternity and perfection Trajan’s Column, Rome, 106-113 CE (height 38 m) – support gilded statue of emperor- winding through interior of shaft is a spiral staircase leading to a viewing platform- credited as work of Apollodorus-role as velvedere(viewing station) Titus riding in triumph, Arch of Titus, 81 CE rides triumphal chariot, high above a teeming crowd- horses appear in profile but chariot is frontal=illusion that procession is approaching viwer before turning sharply- behind emperor-personification of victory crowns him for his success Procession of spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, Arch of Titus, 81 CE – soldiers carry booty through the streets including seven-branched menorah and other sacred furniture looted from Temple- panel marks important move toward spatial illusionism Colosseum, Rome, 72-80 CE – held over 50 000 spectators-concrete-faced with travertine- 80 arched entrances led into building framed with tuscan columns- second story, Ionic columns framed second set of arches, third engaged Corinthian columns. WEEK 6

Sinan, Mosque of Selim II, 1569-74, Edirne, Turkey Sultan-Muhammed, Allegory of Heavenly and Earthly Drunkenness, from a manuscript of the Divan of Hafiz, 1529 Detail of a carpet from Iran, ca. 1575-1600 Behzad, Poor man refused admittance to a mosque, from a manuscript of the Bostan of Sa’di, 1486 CE Court of the Lions, Alhambra, 14th c. CE, Granada, Spain Dome, Hall of the Abencerrajes, Alhambra, 14th c. CE, Granada, Spain Cloak of Roger II of Sicily, 12th c. CE The Temptation and Fall, Doors of Bishop Bernward, Hildesheim Cathedral, ca. 1015 CE Detail of qibla wall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, 10th c. CE Interior of Prayer Hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, 8th-10th c.

CE St. Matthew, from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 816-835 CE St. Matthew, from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, ca. 800-810 CE Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler, 9th C Kufic script from a Qu’ran, 9th c. Chi Rho Iota Page, Book of Kells, ca. 800 CE St. Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels, tempera on vellum, ca. 700 CE Cross Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, tempera on vellum, ca. 700 CE Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, ca. 690 and later Interior, Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, ca. 690 CE and later Belt buckle, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE Purse cover, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE Clasp, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, ca. 600-650 CE

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