History of Jazz – Chapter 1

cross-fertilization
the coming together of Western African and Western European cultures (in terms of music, art, dance, language, religion, etc.) in North America
Africanization
the African influence on cross-fertilization of cultures
swing
an American style of Jazz music originating in the 1930’s; typically characterized by “big band” instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages, and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the measure.
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polyrhythm
present in West African music; containing more than one rhythm
syncopation
“between beats” where the emphasis does not fall on the expected beat of 1, 2, 3, or 4, but between them; characteristic of jazz and some rock music
theories for the origin of the word “jazz”
march music
novelty music
juke music
fun music
ragged music
blue music
folk music
Jas, Jass, Jaz
“hipness factor”
blamed for isolating jazz from a larger public
“blues factor”
blues-like feeling or blues presentation
melody
one of the most important ingredients of a song; composer’s idea of a particular sound picture; scales, melodic motifs, intervals, arpeggios, etc.
rhythm
backbone of the composition; should adequately support the melody
harmonic scheme
supports the melody and gives it form and distinction; works together with the rhythm to produce an overall structural base on the sound picture
rhythmic player
shorter, more syncopated lines over smoother, longer, choppier phrases
three elements that make jazz the important music that it is:
improvisation, originality, and creativity
third-stream jazz
sophisticated, classically-oriented; blending of European art music and improvised jazz
hard bop/jazz fusion
blues-oriented jazz
free jazz
free-spirited
New Orleans period jazz
contrapuntal and predominantly improvisational in structure; freewheeling style
by the 1920s, jazz musicians took on a more _________ approach
classical
Jazz is music resulting from…
years of acculturation, adaptation, and assimilation of both West African and West European cultures in the United States
more contact slaves had with the slave owner
less preservation of the slaves’ original culture
African slaves’ way of looking at music
something functional; music served a purpose
song sermon
spontaneous songlike preaching of the fiery country preacher gave birth to African-American religious music
African-Americanization
further transformation of the results of cross-fertilization and Africanization by the African-Americans
monorhythmic or polyrhythmic: West European
monorhythmic
monorhythmic or polyrhythmic: West African
polyrhythmic
accidental harmony
West African music in North America; harmony that moves horizontally rather than vertically
blue not
the bastardizing of certain notes; lowering or flatting
jazz enhancement
development of special symbols to represent musical effects
signifying song
designed to carry a message of social significance
trumpet
loud, brassy sound; Louis Armstrong
clarinet
high point in popularity during the 1930s; Benny Goodman; Eddie Daniels
alto saxophone
peak in popularity during the 1940s; Charlier Parker; brassy-reed sound
tenor saxophone
lower pitched than the alto sax; soft subtones, plush low and middle register tones, high shrill, piercing sound of the upper register
soprano saxophone
high-pitched, shrill; Sidney Bechet; John Coltrane’s 1960s major breakthrough
baritone saxophone
root/bottom of reed section; deep, rich dominant texture adds fullness and depth to the harmonies in a reed section
the bass
made first appearance during slavery as a single string plucked over a square, pegged instrument; provided rhythm and kept beat; Jimmy Blanton
the guitar
not used as a solo instrument until the 1920s; bottlenecking
trombone
official beginning in the marching bands of New Orleans; Kid Ory; Joseph “Trick Sam” Nanton
flute
used primarily as a second instrument by saxophonists; used full scale by 1953-54; Herbie Mann
vibraphone
owes existence to the African xylophone or balaphone; made by carving out a large wood log; long wooden bars shaped into various sizes; 1930s – emerged as a major solo instrument in jazz; Lionel Hampton; Terry Pollard
culture usually refers to…
the learned behavioral patterns of a particular group of people, which reflect the total aesthetic values of the society
African-American culture in its beginning stages was a reflection of (2)
West Africans and West Europeans

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