History of Jazz (exam 1: chapters 1-4)

History of Jazz (exam 1: chapters 1-4)

Tempo
Speed
Meter
The organization of recurring pulses into patterns
Dynamics
Volume or loudness
Music
Organized sound and/or silence
Rhythm
Organization of time in music
Beat
A unit of pulse
Accelerando
Gradually getting faster
Ritarando
Gradually getting slower
Rubato
(robbed time) a lack of steady tempo
Measure or bar
A measurement of time containing beats, tempo, meter and rhythms
Accent
Musical stress (a more forceful or even louder sound)
Downbeat
The first strong beat (beat #1)
Upbeat
A weak beat preceding the downbeat
Syncopation
An accent on either the weak beat or between beats (interuption)
Polyrhythm
Several dissimilar rhythms performed simultaneously
Legato
Long and connected notes
Staccato
Short, abruptly separated notes
Swing
A rhythmic concept
Frequency
The # of vibration per second (Hertz or Hz) effected by an elastic body when the equilibrium of this boyd is in some way disturbed
Pitch
A sound that has a highness or lowness depending on its Frequency; often called a note
Octave
The doubling of halving of a fundamental frequency creating a pitch that sounds the same yet is higher or lower than the fundamental
Interval
The distance between two pitches
Scale
An arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in a fixed and unvarying pattern
Equal temperment
The division of the octave into twelve equal pitches called semitones (or half-steps)
Chromatic Scale
The scale containing twelve half steps within the octave, corresponding to all the keys (black and white) within an octave on the piano
Tonic
The central pitch around which the melody & harmony gravitate
Tonality
The organization of music around one central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone
Consonance
Pitches (intervals) sounding agreeable and stable
Dissonance
Pitches (interval) sounding discordant or harsh
Key
a group of notes (scale) with one designated as the tonic
Modulation
A shift from one key to another
Melody
A coherent succession of single pitches, a linear concept
Conjuct
Smooth, scale-like motion by step
Disjunct
Motion by large intervals or leaps
Diatonic
Using the major or minor scale for construction
Chromatic
Using the notes of the chromatic scale
Blue note
A note that doesn’t fit in the major scale. A dissonant note that doesn’t fit the harmony and sound “bluesy”
Phrase
A self-contained portion of a melody theme or tune
Cadence
A musical punctuation at the end of the phrase
Antecedent
An open-ended phrase (answer)
Consequent
A closed-ended phrase (answer)
Motive
A short melodic fragment
Harmony
Simultaneous sounding of pitches
Chord
Three or more notes played simultaneously
Arpeggio
A broken chord or a chord with its notes played in succession
Chord voicing
A re-positioning or restructuring of the notes of a chord notes could be added and/or omitted
Chord progression
The successive movement of one chord to the next
Harmonic Rhythm
The time of rhythmic value in which harmony progresses the regularity and linear motion of chord progressions
Monophonic techture
When a singer or group of singers sing the same melody (a single melody)
Homophonic techture
Add harmony to one melody
Polyphonic techture
Have more than one melody
Timbre
The quality of sound, as distinct from its pitch; also known as tone color
Range
Lowest note to highest note (every instrument has a range)
Register
The range of an instrument or voice: upper register means its highest notes lower register means its lower notes
Soprano
The highest female register and range (singing)
Alto
Low register of a female voice
Tenor
High male voice
Baritone
Low male voice
Bass
Large dark tone with lowest possible range
Form
The preconceived structures that govern improvisation in jazz
Verse
Chorus
Chorus
Portion of the song that contains the overall “form”. One complete cycle of the form is called a chorus
AABA
Composing an eight-bar phrase. Repeat it. Contrasting it with a new eight-bar phrase (known as the bridge, or release), ending with a half cadence to drive the piece forward
Bright timbre
Roughening, buzzes and ringings
Creole
Anyone with mixed blood (French owner’s baby from slave)
Creole color
Anyone mixed that is African American/ French or spanish
Creole People
Creole of color were educated and high class in society because they were born from the Rich Spanish or French slave owner

As time passed creoles of color became like slaves by the time World War I came around

Creoles of Color that gained education provided Western musical background because they could read and play musical notes

2000 prostitutes and over 200 Brothels in Storyville

Prostitution in New Orleans gave a lot of mixed culture

Jism, Jasm, Jasa
Terms for sex in the 1800s
Ragging
Syncopating music
Scott Jople
Notorious ragtime composer
Blues (5 definitions)
1. A rhythmed poetic form (AAB)
2. A sad feeling
3. A genre of music (related to Jazz, but not Jazz)
4. A musical form with a set phrasing and cord progression
5. Any combination of the above
African American Retention
Characteristics of African music/culture retained in African American- American music/culture
Turnaround
A passage at the end of a section which leads to the next section
Improvisation
The creative activity of immediate (“in the moment”) musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
Ostinato
A constantly recurring melodic fragment
Blues Form
Head: Original Melody, Form, Chord Progression
Solo Chorus: Improvised Melodies, Form, Chord Progression
Head: Original Melody, Form, Chord Progression
Comping
A rhythmically unpredictable way of playing chords to accompany a soloist; typically one of the variable layers in the rhythm section
Vibrato
Wavering of a pitch
Rhythm Changes
A harmonic progression occurring in George Gershwin’s song “I got rhythm”
ABAC
Begins with an A section (8 bars) followed by a B (8 bars) section and then returns to A before going to C
Vibrato Variations
The use of unusual sounds for expressive purposes
“Ma” Rainey
Gertrude Pritchett

The Mother of the Blues

One of the most popular singers of Vaudeville, or classic blues

The Castles
Transformed music into cool, middle-class elegance dances known as ‘ragtime’
James Reese Europe
Black band leader who performed ‘ragtime’ for the Castles’
John Philip Sousa
Conductor and composer whose name was synonymous with brass band excellence

Sousaphone was inspired by him

Call and Response
A persuasive principle in folk, pop and art music.

It’s almost like a conversation

Blue Notes
Notes in which the pitch is bent expressively, using variable intonation
Bridge
The middle part of 32-bar AABA form, which connected, or “bridges” between the A sections; it typically ends with a half cadence
Riff
A short, catchy and repeated melodic phrase
Phrasing
The manner of shaping phrases: some musicians play phrases that are short and terse, while others are garrulous and intense
Groove
General term for the overall rhythmic framework of a performance
Melodic Paraphrase
A preexisting melody using as the basis for improvisation
Rhythm Section
Instruments that provide accompaniment for jazz soloing; harmony instruments (piano, guitar) bass instruments (string bass, tuba), and percussion (drum set)
High hat
Two-shoulder level cymbals on an upright pile with a foot pedal at its base; the pedal brings the top cymbal crashing into the lower one with a distinct thunk
Walking bass
A bass line featuring four equal beats per bar, usually used as a rhythmic foundation in Jazz
Pedal Point
A passage in which the bass note refuses to move, remaining stationary on a single note
Ride Rhythm (pattern)
A steady pulsation played on the ride cymbal that forms one of the foundations for modern jazz
Trading fours
In a jam session, “trading” short (usually four-bar) solo back and forth between the drums and the soloists, or between soloists
Double time
A technique in which a jazz ensemble, especially the rhythm section, plays twice as fast without changing the length of the overall cycle
Stop time
A technique in which a band plays a series of short chords a fixed distance apart, creating spaces for an instrument to fill with monophonic improvisation
Head
A composed section of music that frames a small-combo performance, appearing at the beginning and again at the end
Standard
A popular song that has become part of the permanent repertory for jazz musicians
Country blues
An early style of blues, first recorded in the 1920s, featuring itinerant male singers accompanying themselves on guitar
Vaudeville (classic) blues
An early theatrical form of the blues featuring female singers, accompanied by a small band
Ragtime
A style of popular music in the early twentieth century that conveyed African American polyrhythm in notated form; includes popular song and dance, although its primarily known today through compositions written for the piano
Field holler
An unaccompanied, rhythmically loose vocal line that expressed his loneliness and individuality
Work songs
A type of folk song used during work to regulate physical activity or to engage the worker’s attention
Spirituals
African American religious songs
Countermelody
In homophonic texture, an accompanying melodic part with distinct, though subordinate, melodic interest; also known as obbligato
Counterpoint
Polyphonic texture, especially when composed
Congo Square
Used in the eighteenth century as a market for merchants of every stripe, eventually became the site of a whites-only circus, complete with carousel
Storyville
“The District”; a zone of legalized prostitution. Women were housed in elaborate mansions, but they labored in brutal and disease-ridden shacks
Cakewalk
A comic dance supposedly dating from the time of slavery