History of Jazz (exam 1: chapters 1-4)

History of Jazz (exam 1: chapters 1-4)

The organization of recurring pulses into patterns
Volume or loudness
Organized sound and/or silence
Organization of time in music
A unit of pulse
Gradually getting faster
Gradually getting slower
(robbed time) a lack of steady tempo
Measure or bar
A measurement of time containing beats, tempo, meter and rhythms
Musical stress (a more forceful or even louder sound)
The first strong beat (beat #1)
A weak beat preceding the downbeat
An accent on either the weak beat or between beats (interuption)
Several dissimilar rhythms performed simultaneously
Long and connected notes
Short, abruptly separated notes
A rhythmic concept
The # of vibration per second (Hertz or Hz) effected by an elastic body when the equilibrium of this boyd is in some way disturbed
A sound that has a highness or lowness depending on its Frequency; often called a note
The doubling of halving of a fundamental frequency creating a pitch that sounds the same yet is higher or lower than the fundamental
The distance between two pitches
An arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in a fixed and unvarying pattern
Equal temperment
The division of the octave into twelve equal pitches called semitones (or half-steps)
Chromatic Scale
The scale containing twelve half steps within the octave, corresponding to all the keys (black and white) within an octave on the piano
The central pitch around which the melody & harmony gravitate
The organization of music around one central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone
Pitches (intervals) sounding agreeable and stable
Pitches (interval) sounding discordant or harsh
a group of notes (scale) with one designated as the tonic
A shift from one key to another
A coherent succession of single pitches, a linear concept
Smooth, scale-like motion by step
Motion by large intervals or leaps
Using the major or minor scale for construction
Using the notes of the chromatic scale
Blue note
A note that doesn’t fit in the major scale. A dissonant note that doesn’t fit the harmony and sound “bluesy”
A self-contained portion of a melody theme or tune
A musical punctuation at the end of the phrase
An open-ended phrase (answer)
A closed-ended phrase (answer)
A short melodic fragment
Simultaneous sounding of pitches
Three or more notes played simultaneously
A broken chord or a chord with its notes played in succession
Chord voicing
A re-positioning or restructuring of the notes of a chord notes could be added and/or omitted
Chord progression
The successive movement of one chord to the next
Harmonic Rhythm
The time of rhythmic value in which harmony progresses the regularity and linear motion of chord progressions
Monophonic techture
When a singer or group of singers sing the same melody (a single melody)
Homophonic techture
Add harmony to one melody
Polyphonic techture
Have more than one melody
The quality of sound, as distinct from its pitch; also known as tone color
Lowest note to highest note (every instrument has a range)
The range of an instrument or voice: upper register means its highest notes lower register means its lower notes
The highest female register and range (singing)
Low register of a female voice
High male voice
Low male voice
Large dark tone with lowest possible range
The preconceived structures that govern improvisation in jazz
Portion of the song that contains the overall “form”. One complete cycle of the form is called a chorus
Composing an eight-bar phrase. Repeat it. Contrasting it with a new eight-bar phrase (known as the bridge, or release), ending with a half cadence to drive the piece forward
Bright timbre
Roughening, buzzes and ringings
Anyone with mixed blood (French owner’s baby from slave)
Creole color
Anyone mixed that is African American/ French or spanish
Creole People
Creole of color were educated and high class in society because they were born from the Rich Spanish or French slave owner

As time passed creoles of color became like slaves by the time World War I came around

Creoles of Color that gained education provided Western musical background because they could read and play musical notes

2000 prostitutes and over 200 Brothels in Storyville

Prostitution in New Orleans gave a lot of mixed culture

Jism, Jasm, Jasa
Terms for sex in the 1800s
Syncopating music
Scott Jople
Notorious ragtime composer
Blues (5 definitions)
1. A rhythmed poetic form (AAB)
2. A sad feeling
3. A genre of music (related to Jazz, but not Jazz)
4. A musical form with a set phrasing and cord progression
5. Any combination of the above
African American Retention
Characteristics of African music/culture retained in African American- American music/culture
A passage at the end of a section which leads to the next section
The creative activity of immediate (“in the moment”) musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.
A constantly recurring melodic fragment
Blues Form
Head: Original Melody, Form, Chord Progression
Solo Chorus: Improvised Melodies, Form, Chord Progression
Head: Original Melody, Form, Chord Progression
A rhythmically unpredictable way of playing chords to accompany a soloist; typically one of the variable layers in the rhythm section
Wavering of a pitch
Rhythm Changes
A harmonic progression occurring in George Gershwin’s song “I got rhythm”
Begins with an A section (8 bars) followed by a B (8 bars) section and then returns to A before going to C
Vibrato Variations
The use of unusual sounds for expressive purposes
“Ma” Rainey
Gertrude Pritchett

The Mother of the Blues

One of the most popular singers of Vaudeville, or classic blues

The Castles
Transformed music into cool, middle-class elegance dances known as ‘ragtime’
James Reese Europe
Black band leader who performed ‘ragtime’ for the Castles’
John Philip Sousa
Conductor and composer whose name was synonymous with brass band excellence

Sousaphone was inspired by him

Call and Response
A persuasive principle in folk, pop and art music.

It’s almost like a conversation

Blue Notes
Notes in which the pitch is bent expressively, using variable intonation
The middle part of 32-bar AABA form, which connected, or “bridges” between the A sections; it typically ends with a half cadence
A short, catchy and repeated melodic phrase
The manner of shaping phrases: some musicians play phrases that are short and terse, while others are garrulous and intense
General term for the overall rhythmic framework of a performance
Melodic Paraphrase
A preexisting melody using as the basis for improvisation
Rhythm Section
Instruments that provide accompaniment for jazz soloing; harmony instruments (piano, guitar) bass instruments (string bass, tuba), and percussion (drum set)
High hat
Two-shoulder level cymbals on an upright pile with a foot pedal at its base; the pedal brings the top cymbal crashing into the lower one with a distinct thunk
Walking bass
A bass line featuring four equal beats per bar, usually used as a rhythmic foundation in Jazz
Pedal Point
A passage in which the bass note refuses to move, remaining stationary on a single note
Ride Rhythm (pattern)
A steady pulsation played on the ride cymbal that forms one of the foundations for modern jazz
Trading fours
In a jam session, “trading” short (usually four-bar) solo back and forth between the drums and the soloists, or between soloists
Double time
A technique in which a jazz ensemble, especially the rhythm section, plays twice as fast without changing the length of the overall cycle
Stop time
A technique in which a band plays a series of short chords a fixed distance apart, creating spaces for an instrument to fill with monophonic improvisation
A composed section of music that frames a small-combo performance, appearing at the beginning and again at the end
A popular song that has become part of the permanent repertory for jazz musicians
Country blues
An early style of blues, first recorded in the 1920s, featuring itinerant male singers accompanying themselves on guitar
Vaudeville (classic) blues
An early theatrical form of the blues featuring female singers, accompanied by a small band
A style of popular music in the early twentieth century that conveyed African American polyrhythm in notated form; includes popular song and dance, although its primarily known today through compositions written for the piano
Field holler
An unaccompanied, rhythmically loose vocal line that expressed his loneliness and individuality
Work songs
A type of folk song used during work to regulate physical activity or to engage the worker’s attention
African American religious songs
In homophonic texture, an accompanying melodic part with distinct, though subordinate, melodic interest; also known as obbligato
Polyphonic texture, especially when composed
Congo Square
Used in the eighteenth century as a market for merchants of every stripe, eventually became the site of a whites-only circus, complete with carousel
“The District”; a zone of legalized prostitution. Women were housed in elaborate mansions, but they labored in brutal and disease-ridden shacks
A comic dance supposedly dating from the time of slavery