History of jazz Exam 1

Dr. Jazz
by Jelly Roll Morton
St. Louis Blues
Composed by W.C. Handy
Dixie Jass Band One-Step
first jazz recording. by The Original Dixieland Jass Band
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Dippermouth Blues
by Joe “King” Oliver
Carolina Shout
by James P. Johnson
Muskrat Ramble
by Kid Ory
Maple Leaf Rag
by Scott Joplin
The Great Migration
movement from N.O. to Chicago
Storyville
Red Light District of New Orleans. (prostitution was legalized)
Congo Square
place where slaves gathered in Sundays to dance, sing, and play native African instruments in New Orleans
New Orleans History
originally owned by French, then given to Spanish, then given to US in Louisiana Purchase
Jazz Age
1920s era of jazz and wealth
Brass bands
marched by day to advertise, played dances at night to make $$. American popular music
Fisk Jubilee Singers
group of singers that popularized spirituals
Ragtime
piano style with a syncopated melody that led to Jazz
Stride piano
jazz piano where left hand is extremely active and right hand plays the melody
Country Blues
12 bars
Classic (city) blues
often backed up by jazz players; Mamie Smith
Spirituals
European hymns with African musical elements (shout & call)
Creoles of Color/Uptown Blacks
after Haitian refugees came blacks were segregated into separate communities; many were very cultured and studied abroad in Europe
Jelly Roll Morton (Red Hot Peppers)
jazz pianist/composer from N.O.
Joe “King” Oliver
legendary trumpet/cornet player from N.O.
The Original Dixieland Jass Band
all white, 1st jazz recording & formed in new Orleans
Buddy Bolden
cornet player from N.O. influence by Joe Oliver
Bessie Smith
sang blues
Scott Joplin
maple leaf rag ~ragtime piano
Robert Johnson
country blues, ex: Sweet Home Chicago
Early jazz recordings
had to use woodblock instead of drums
Front line
trumpet, trombone, clarinet combined polyphonically
Early rhythm section
banjo, tuba, drums
Dissonance
creates tension; relatively harsh
Consonance
relieves tension; relatively pleasing
Tempo
rate of speed in music
Swing 8ths
long note (2 8th notes combined), short note (1 8th note) repeated
Improvisation
making it up as you go
Jazz
style of music comprised of improvisation, swing feel and often syncopation
Dynamics
degrees of how loud or soft
Form
the thematic structure of a piece of music
**(12 bar blues, 32 bar A-A-B-A, “rhythm changes,” head arrangement)**
Texture
the quality created by the combination of different elements
**3 types~ monophonic (single line even if two+ instruments are playing), homophonic (melody with accompaniment),
polyphonic (three or more independent lines of equal importance)**
Timbre
quality or color of a given sound (ex: raspy, clear, muffled…)
Harmony
the study of chords & how they behave
Syncopation
the changing of the normal metric accent to an unexpected place
Rhythm
the orderly movement of music in time
Riff
a short, catchy jazz phrase
Melody
a series of pitches (notes) that comprise a musical thought
Phrase
distinct group of notes forming a complete thought in a longer piece of music
chord progression
progression of musical chords of the same root
clavinet
most important ragtime and early jazz chordal instrument
dixieland
style that exemplifies polyphonic texture

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