Psychology was born out of which two disciplines? What were they both studying that led to the creation of psychology?
philosophy and physiology
how our mind, body, and outside environment interact
Who formed the first psychology laboratory? What was the focus of this individual’s study?
awareness of immediate experience
Structuralism vs. Functionalism
Focus, methods/philosophies of each?
Functionalism – divide into elements and explore how they are related, introspection
Functionalism – investigate the function/purpose of consciousness, stream of consciousness
What did Feud introduce into the field of psychology? Criticisms?
idea of the unconscious, psychoanalytical theory
criticism: saying people aren’t in control, animalism, focus on sexual urges
What is behaviorism? How did it diverge from previous schools of thought?
idea that psych should study only observable behavior, emphasized verifiability
Behavioralism: nature or nurture?
What fundamental principle of behaviorism did skinner propose?
we repeat behaviors with good outcomes and don’t repeat those with bad outcomes
Criticisms of behavioralism?
focus on behavior > animal behavior, not human behavior, criticism of free society?
What movement was spawned as a response to the criticisms of behaviorism?
humanism, emphasized unique qualities of humans (i.e. freedom and potential for growth)
What aspects of behaviorism and psychoanalysis did humanism criticize?
similarity of humans to animals > dehumanizing, focus on sexual urges
First applied arm of psych?
Modern study of consciousness is called…?
What does the biological perspective emphasize?
behavior can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behave (i.e. neuroscience)
Tenets of evolutionary psychology?
natural selection favors behaviors that enhance an organism’s reproductive success
therefore these behaviors are passed to the next generation
What prompted Seligman and others to study positive psych?
daughter said he was to “grumpy”
realized their previous negative approach