how is the discovery of beer linked to the growth of the first “civilizations”
it gave a clean and safe alternative to water by ancient civilizations, increasing life expectancies and allowing cities to grow. it also allowed peoples to come together to form larger cities through its ability to convey equality and trust.
what does the history of beer in the ancient world tell us about the early civilizations
it tells us that ancient civilizations worshiped different deities then we do today, and did so to help explain why things were the way they were in the world. it says they were centered around food production and surplus, and that beer led to early people’s job specializations and thus, the class system being born.
what sources does the author use to gather his information on the use of beer
ancient Mesopotamian pictograms, a 1960s archaeological experiment over the cultivation of grains, Mesopotamian and Egyptian proverbs, the Epic of Gilgamesh, a survey of Egyptian literature, Egyptian scribe’s practice texts, a survey of Mesopotamian ration texts, an early recipe for beer, refugee and marriage documents, ration records for the builders of the Egyptian Pyramids, and “The Ebers Papyrus.”
what were some of the uses of beer by ancient cultures? nourishment? ritual? religious?
beer was used in many ways, such as a payment and currency, gift from the gods, source of vitamin B, medicinal supplement, and as a way of bringing ancient peoples together.
how did beer “civilize” man, according to standage
it provided a reason to stay in one singular area, considering its low ability to be stored. This made a reason to create farms, and people to cluster together into cities for protection. These cities were where civilization was created.
what is the relationship between beer and writing, commerce, and health?
the first written recipe for anything was for beer, beer was a staple food in the diets of most Mesopotamian and Egyptian people. It was a common ration, and was considered highly nutritious. As it was used as a currency, it is only logical that commerce would revolve around beer. It was also used as a sort of medicine, like a weak anesthetic. Simple rations of beer and bread were the first things to be recorded by Mesopotamian city states.
how did the use of wine differ from that of beer in ancient greece and rome
wine was used universally in Ancient Greece and Rome as a way to show that their nations were more civilized than those who drank beer. wine was also mixed with water, while beer was drank at its original strength. it was used as a disinfectant, while beer has very little disinfecting properties.
how was wine used by the greeks
it was used by the Greeks as a way to show their civilization and social class. it also brought people together when everyone drank the same wine at symposium to show that they were equals.
how and why did wine develop into a form of a status symbol in greece?
wine was used to show social status when people who had more money could import better wines. people who drank more foreign and expensive wines were thought to be of a higher class. the ability to name certain wines was also a symbol of high class.
how was wine consumed? what does this tell us about the ancient greek culture?
wine was consumed communally from a shared vat called a krater in the middle of a room. it was mixed with water to ensure that all guests in attendance do not become drunk, but stay at a more buzzed state. it tells us that Greeks thought that drunkenness was dishonorable and that all people were equals when they were together. it showed that people who commonly associated with each other were of similar social classes.
how did the use of wine in roman culture differ from that of ancient greece?
in Roman culture wine was used more as a class definer then it was in Greek culture. people at the same party would drink different wines based on their social class, and it allowed people to find similar company. in Greek times wine was used to bring people together at parties, while in Roman times it was used to push the classes further apart.
what is the relationship between wine and empire, medicine, and religion
wine has shown where the first european civilizations existed, and continues to dominate cultures of those areas. it was used as an early disinfectant, and made previously undrinkable water drinkable and helped to make sure that wounds would not become infected, significantly lengthening the lives of the average person. it is used to help differentiate through religions, with Christianity using wine in its practices but Islam placing heavy restrictions on wine.
what is the origin of distilled spirits
distilled Spirits come from the Muslim idea of distillation, which provided the ability to have more alcohol in less capacity.
what is the connection between spirits and colonization
spirits led to Triangle trade, which provided a way to easily earn money in the colonies. it also led to more people wanting to live in the colonies because there was more access to alcohol (which made the work week more tolerable for laborers) that had not previously been available in the region.
how was the production of spirits connected to slavery
the need to produce spirits led to an increase in the need for labor, which slavery provided for. spirits also gave a way to pay for said slaves.
what role did spirits play on the high seas
spirits allowed for longer sea voyages to be made and gave British sailors an edge over any other sailor in the colonial period.
in the 18th century, how did spirits help britain have a more superior navy than france?
spirits allowed for longer sea voyages to be made, and helped provide defense against scurvy, a common disease of sailors at the time.
why were spirits an important staple in colonial america
spirits gave the laborer a break from the work week, and also employed several thousands of people in the Americas. it also gave a longer term unspoilable beverage.
how did rum play a role in the american revolution
rum and molasses taxes were the first time America disobeyed England, and gave them the idea that they were their own people. it also gave American troops a beverage that could last longer than beer or wine.
what were the negative effects/uses of spirits
spirits made people much more intoxicated than their lesser alcoholic counterparts, leading to more intoxication by the people. it also opened up the need for more slaves to be taken from their homelands to the Americas, and was used as a currency to give to the slavers. It also allowed for the local indian populations to be taken advantage of through spirits intoxicating properties.
who did europeans get coffee from and how did it spread to europe
british travelers observed muslim coffee houses in cairo and palestine and brought the idea back to europe.
why was it so important to europe’s development that many people’s beverage of choice switched from alcohol to coffee
productivity shot up because laborers weren’t drunk from drinking alcohol in the mornings.
describe coffee’s effect on the global balance of power (in terms of commerce)
arabs had monopoly on beans, dutch were middlemen with plantations in Java (took over europe because of better prices) and the french began planting in the west indies
how did coffee play a pivotal role in the scientific revolution
coffee houses were information exchanges for scientists. coffee houses at oxford sparked discussions about science, specifically gravity with isaac newton.
how did coffee play a pivotal role in the “financial revolution”
discussion and lectures between scientists and merchants led them to exploit new tech navigation methods and mining techniques to form companies which led to the industrial revolution. coffee houses were also used a makeshift stock exchanges until a group founded a building and created the official london stock exchange, this let Great britain displace amsterdam as the economic powerhouse of the world.
how did coffee play a pivotal role in the french revolution (give lots of detail and go into the enlightenment)
coffee houses in paris were places where french intellectuals brewed over the ideas of the enlightenment and how the french government was so backwards (2% had all wealth and were exempt from tax) Coffeehouses were the beginning point of the riots that started the french revolution.
when did tea first become a mainstream drink in asia? europe?
the second emperor of china brewed the first cup of tea supposedly, tea reached Europe in the 1600s
how did the consumption of tea in europe differ from how is was consumed in china or japan
tea was consumed in a ceremony meant to cleanse the body and soul in japan and china, in europe it was consumed at parties, much like greek symposiums.
if tea arrived in europe around the same time as when coffee did, why did it not find the immediate success that coffee had
it was much more expensive.
how did tea transform english society? who were its main consumers and what were some of the new rituals that surrounded tea?
in the beginning tea was only consumed by the wealthy because of its price. later on when direct trade with china was opened, even the common working man could drink it regularly, this gave rise to the drinking of tea in calm surroundings. additionally there were tea parties.
how was tea an integral part of the industrial revolution
workers were offered “tea breaks” which provided them time to rest, but unlike the tradition worker drink of beer, tea sharpened the senses through caffeine and made the workers much more efficient. boiled tea decreased disease meaning more workers in one area
what was the connection between tea and politics
the british east india company had so much power in the government that in one policy it was able to take out a 1.4 million pound loan, become tax exempt and create a monopoly on tea sale, just because the government relied on their tea trade so much. (10% of their revenue)
how was tea connected to the opium trade and the opium war of 1839-1842
the British east india company (BEIC) produced opium in india, sent it to auction in canton to auctioned off to smaller companies that they had control over, the companies then sold the opium to chinese merchants who smuggled it into china. the BEIC could grow enough money to pay for tea because china only took silver and silver prices were rising faster than tea prices so the BEIC couldn’t pay for it. when chinese officials seized shipments of opium from british traders and arrested 2 british sailors, great britain declared war on china.
what role did the tea trade and production play in the british rule over india?
britain wanted to grow tea in india to provide a cheaper more sustainable alternative to china, this gave profits to britain and jobs to india.
what was the origin of coke
coke was a medical tonic.
how was coke used medicinally and what were the additives
it was a medical tonic used to calm the nerves and sharpen the senses and used cocaine.
what was the relationship of coke and world war ii?
it was the base and symbol of capitalism. they put it in military bases and everywhere else. It was a way of improving moral in the military. one of the main reasons coke spread so far was when the military brought it with them. It was one of the reasons that other countries wanted to be like America. when other countries wanted to be like America, they introduced their countries to coke.
how was coke thought of by the communist during the cold war
russia made coke and other american products the enemy, and denounced these products.
they hated materialism and coke represented that.
they hated materialism and coke represented that.
what is meant by “globalization in a bottle”
the military brought coke with them everywhere, so coke spread everywhere in the world. coca cola was exported from America to every corner of the earth.tThis was one of the first american products to be moved around the world because it represented America as a whole.
how did coca-cola materialize into an american value? how did this help and hurt coca-cola? (and, in some ways, america itself)
coca cola is power and capitalism in America. whenever it was shipped from America to other countries, it represented American goods. when people think America, coca cola is one of the first things that comes to mind.
describe how the scientific advancements of the 19th century brought the history of the beverages full circle
the identification of bacteria and how bacteria and other disease causing organisms cause disease has led to safer drinking water.
which water’s quality is more tightly controlled: tap or bottled?
tap water is more regulated than bottled water, even though almost half of all bottled water comes from tap water.
how many people have no access to safe water today
how has access to water affected international relations
water has both created peace and cooperation between nations and has also been a reason for several modern wars.