History Test: India

History Test: India

Himalaya Mountains
mountain range, contains two largest mountains in the world, between India, China, and Nepal
Hindu Kush Mountains
mountains to the north of India
Khyber Pass
For a long time was the only way into india, a long pass from the north into India.
Karakorum Mountains
Mountains just north and east of the Hindu Kush
Ganges River
A holy place for Hinduism, river which supported many ancient civilizations
Mumbai
Large Indian coastal city on the western side of the country
Pakistan
Bordering country to the west of India, still fight over borders because of the split up of India into three countries after 1948 when the British left India.
Deccan Plateau
Plateau in the southern part of India
New Delhi
The new capital of India, built very close to Delhi which was the old capitol.
Indus River
Supported first Indian civilization, Indus valley, and its source is the Tibetan Plateau.
Sri Lanka
Country south of India, Is buddhist because Asoka sent missionaries there during his reign of power.
Bangladesh
Country to east of India, also broken up by British Empire. There capital, Dhaka, could go under water due to global warming. It is also one of the largest cities in the world.
Arabian Sea
Sea to the west of india
Bay of Bengal
Large bay to the east of India
monsoon
Large rain storm which come annually, and it floods the rivers and therefore adds silt to the soil making the monsoons necessary for having a good harvest.
Indian Ocean
Ocean to the south of India
What are the major regions of India? Describe each.
the north is mountains, Himalayas and Hindu kush. In the middle is the northern plains where civilization first developed. South is the Deccan plateau.
What are the natural barriers that protect India?
To the north are the mountains, Hindu Kush and Himalayas. South, East and west are water, Indian ocean, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal respectively.
What effect did each natural barrier have on the history of India?
Harappa
was one of the main cities where ruins were found in the Indus Valley Civilization. it was named after a nearby modern city. People were called Harappans after this city. (see Mohenjo-Daro for city plans/layout)
Mohenjo-Daro
another of the main cities where ruins were found in the Indus Valley Civilization. it means “mound of the dead”. Indus settlements were laid out with streets in a grid pattern, and major ave. were twice as wide as minor streets.
Aryans
were the people from the Vedic Period (around 2000 BC). this comes from the Sanskrit word for “noble”. They are lighter skinned and in HInduism they are mostly Brahmins.
Sanskrit
was the original language of the Aryans. Many works of literature were written in Sanskrit.
Dravidians
Darker skinned people who are mostly in the lower varnas.
raja/maharaja
Regional leaders who ruled villages. They were war leaders who protected the people and for that he got food and money.
Brahmins
one of the varnas. highest ranking, jobs included teachers and priests. VERY hard dharma.
Kshatriyas
one of the varnas. second highest (still upperclass) jobs included warriors and rulers
Vaisyas
one of the varnas. third highest (still upperclass) jobs included traders, farmers herders
Sudras
one of the varnas, last varna (still a little upperclass) jobs included common people, peasants, farmers
Untouchables
people who were not part of any castes (sub divisions of the varnas) and were the lowest class possible. They had the jobs that no one else wanted/the worst jobs, ie. handling dead animals, dead people, funerals
guru
teachers (not really sure exactly)
sati (sutee)
self immolation of Brahmin women, when their husband would die, they would throw themselves on their funeral pyre and kill themselves. (illegal know…thank goodness) they would do this because the job of the women was to take care of the man
varna/caste
varnas- are the social classes (4 sections, see above) castes- are the subdivisions of the varnas
jati
are the subdivisions of the varnas
dowry
the payment that the family of the bride has to pay to the grrom’s family
What are the three characteristics of the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro?
well planned out, grid pattern, water from community wells, or smaller wells. They had public drainage, first sewage system, standardized weights, and walled, elevated citadels (fortresses) that enclosed important buildings (granaries, warehouses, meeting halls)
Why are there still mysteries about the Harappans?
because we cannot understand their language, meaning we cannot read their texts.
What sources do we have for ancient Indian history?
religious texts, travelers accounts (Megasthenes, Faxian- see below), European accounts, artifacts
Describe some major characteristics of life for women in ancient India.
arranged marriages, self immolation of Brahmin women (Sati- see above), honor killings of women, female infanticide, limited roles/confined to household, brides pay family a dowry (see above), patriarchal/patrilineal society
What roles does each part of the varna system play? What role do the Untouchables play?
see above
What restrictions were placed on inter-caste contact?
you had to marry inside your varna, no changing classes, no eating with other classes
In studying India, what common themes emerge?
look over notes; huge influence of religion, fertile lands, rigid social structure based on birth, subordinate roles of women, sources of historical evidence, invaders came from Northwest through Khyber pass, assimilation of culture, many languages, disunity through many kingdoms
Hinduism
one of world’s oldest religions in India, origin hard to trace and no founder. has many influences and practices vary. religion influencing spirituality in India, includes varnas and jati,religious text-veda, upanishads, common themes: reincarnation, atman, brahman, samsara, karma, dharma, goal-moksha, (teachings, etc below)
Vedas/Rigveda
text of Hinduism. Vedas includes poems and prayers/ hymns of praise. means “knowledge” in sanskrit.consider to contain eternal knowledge revealed by Brahman. dates back 3,000 years ago. the oldest of them is the Rigveda (creator). Vedas also includes Mahabharata w/ 90,000 stanzas and a play Ramayana. Vedas contain most evidence of history, sacred writing of history/society of the Vedic period. Rigveda divided Vedic society into varnas.
Upanishads
sacred text built upon Vedas believed to be revealed/ not written by people. philosophical reflections on Vedas, dealing w/ questions about nature of the world/ meaning of life.
atman
common theme of Hinduism meaning eternal soul. aspect of Brahman that everyone has that shapes personality and cannot be destroyed, even by death.
brahman
common theme. universal force. eternal being that created and preserves the world. everything is an aspect of Brahman. all encompassing, some believe people can’t understand it.
karma
common theme. sum effect of deeds and actions, both good and bad, shaping future experiences, those who are good have better station in next life
reincarnation
theme. after death, atman released from the body and reborn in another, believe universe is part of a pattern of birth, death, and rebirth
samsara
theme. reincarnation. cycle of birth, death, rebirth a person follows before achieving liberation
dharma
theme. varna rules needed to be followed. a person’s spiritual obligations and duties which must be followed to achieve liberation based on class/station. fulfilling dharma leads to good karma, no suffering, moksha
moksha
theme/goal. liberation, release from the cycle of reincarnation and joining with the atman.atman reunited with brahman. releases person from worldly care and Earthly difficulties.
Brahma
creator, one of Big Three/trimurti w/ many devas/avatars-various manifestations of Brahman helping maintain order in nature, has 4 heads representing 4 vedas
Vishnu
one of Big Three/trimurti, preserver, 4 arms, has 3 avatars Lakshmi-grants wealth, Ganesh, Krishna- divine being,warrior
Shiva
3rd of Big Three/ trimurti, avatar-Kali, dancing upon the back of a demon in a ring of fire
Kali
Shiva’s avatar of death.
Devi
supreme goddess
Hindus who focus on society
Hindus who focus on the varnas and completing their dharma
ascetic Hindus
Hindus who become monks/nuns and live alone without material aid
devotional Hindus
Hindus who pray to a god (Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, Devi, etc.) using shrines, sacrifices, temples
avatar
human form of a god
Krishna
avatar of Vishnu, divine being, warrior
Ganeesha
lord of wisdom, avatar of Vishnu
Lakshmi
avatar of Vishnu, grants wealth
ascetics
following a practice of not giving in to one’s desires especially as a means of religious discipline
Siddhartha Gautama
born in 500 BCE in North India, subcontinent of Nepal, young prince who led a sheltered life. on day he was born predicted to be great king/religious leader. saw old age/sickness, then death profound him. snuck out of the palace known as Great Departure, searched for enlightenment, monk, known as Buddha and founder of Buddhism. found enlightenment under Bohd Gaya- spot where he was tested by storms, temptations until he transformed and temple was build there
nirvana/Enlightenment
enlightenment-spiritual understanding, ultimate wisdom, what Buddha searched for for 6 years.
nirvana- a state of total peace and no desire
meditation
silent reflection upon world and nature
dukka
the first of the Four Noble Truths (life is suffering)
Four Noble Truths
major teaching of Buddhism, four central truths that Buddha learned while meditating (more lower)
Eight-Fold Path
what should be followed to overcome desire, 4th noble truth, series of steps that Buddhists believe leads to enlightenment and salvation. examples: right view, attitude,speech, action, livelihood, effort to improve, mindfulness/awareness, concentration
Middle Way
basic teachings of Eightfold Path advising people to live in moderation, avoiding extreme comfort or discomfort in search of nirvana
stupas
temples that had domed roofs and were built to house sacred items from Buddha’s life
bodhisattvas
people who have found enlightenment but have not passed to nirvana. worshipped by Mahayana because of wisdom and compassion.
Mahayana Buddhism
people help each other teach enlightenment, incorporates teaching from texts of Buddha’s lifetime, not necessary to be a monk. majority today, use prayer, meditation, shrines, temples. today currently in China, Japan, Korea
Tripitaka
collection of sacred text of Buddhism (Three Baskets of Reason)
Mahavira
teacher that led Jains who believed Hindus put too much emphasis on rituals. believed unnecessary since people could get moksha by giving up worldly thing and carefully controlling their actions.
Theravada Buddhism
“Way of Elders”, oldest Buddhists traditions, believe that the best way to attain nirvana is to become monk/nun and meditate to find personal path to enlightenment, spread to Thailand and Burma
Jains
group of Hindus who broke away from Hinduism, thought Hindus put too much emphasis on unnecessary ritual because people could achieve moksha by: ahimsa, giving up worldly things and controlling actions, telling only truth and not stealing to eliminate greed/anger/prejudice/gossip
ahimsa
central Jain teaching, nonviolence. not a new idea. Hindus protected it but not to this extent. avoided harming things/animals, vegetarians. many don’t have careers involving harming animals. cover themselves with masks and sweep the ground. (promise to tell the truth/no gossip)
Zen Buddhism
branch of Mahayana Buddhism that emphasizes self-discipline and meditation, developed in China and spread to Japan
Sikhs
people that practice Sikhism, religion blended Islam and Hinduism, came into conflict with Jahangir and supported rebellion against him, believe that there is only one God ,God created the world ,God has no physical form, believe in reincarnation, goal is to be freed from cycle of rebirth and attain unity with God, more than 20 million today, fifth largest religion
Guru Nanak
founder of Sikhism, young spiritual teacher, wrote teachings as poems that are part of the holy book of Sikhism
What are the major teachings of Hinduism and Buddhism?
Hinduism: reincarnation, atman, brahman, samsara, karma, dharma, moksha
Buddhism: Four Noble Truths, Eight-fold path, Middle Way, poisons/antidotes: greed/generosity, anger/compassion (love), ignorance/wisdom
How are Hinduism and Buddhism alike?
both believe in reincarnation, originated in India, goal is to escape cycle of reincarnation
How are Hinduism and Buddhism different?
Buddhism has no gods, Hinduism doesn’t trace origins to one individual, Buddhism doesn’t have varnas
Describe the Four Noble Truths.
1.life is suffering
2.suffering is caused by desire
3.to overcome suffering, one must overcome desire
4.to overcome desire, one must follow the Eightfold Path
Where did Buddhism spread to even though it died out in India?
Thailand, Burma, China, Japan, Korea, Tibet
What do many people find appealing about Buddhism today?
Why is it difficult to be Hindu outside of India today?
Describe the three types of Hindus one finds in India today.
devotional Hindus, Hindus who focus on society, ascetic Hindus (see definitions for each)
Rigveda
oldest of the Vedas, about creation
Ramayana
Hindu epic, relationship between Rama (deva Vishnu in human form) and his wife Sita, seen as model couple for their devotion to each other and willingness to obey darma
Mahabharata
epic poem of Hinduism, tells of war between two families who want to control part of Ganges River Valley, teaches about dharma and proper behavior for rulers/warriors
Bhagavad Gita
passage included within Mahabharata, most sacred of all Hindu texts, written as dialogue between warrior Arjuna and Krishna, addresses aspects of Hindu belief and philosophy
Arthasastra
manual for “statecraft” written by Kautilya, called for strict state control, use of spies, assassination
The Cloud Messenger
lyric poem written by Kalidasa, 111 stanzas, in Sanskrit
Kalidasa
one of the greatest writers of the time, poet and playwright, hired by Chandra Gupta II to write plays for royal court, writing had lyricism and beauty, most famous play Sakuntala tells story of king who falls in love with maiden named Sakuntala, play combines myth/humor/court life/lyric poetry
Taj Mahal
greatest example of Mughal architecture built during reign of Shah Jahan, located in Agra, designed by Persian architects, displays elements of Indian, Persian, and Muslim architectural styles, built as tomb for Shah Jahan’s wife
raga
(in Indian music) pattern of notes having characteristic intervals, rhythms, and embellishments, used as a basis for improvisation
sitar
large, long-necked Indian lute with movable frets, played with wire pick
Describe the three main types of religious structures in ancient India.
Describe Indian achievements in math and science.
medicine: surgery using scalpel, concept of inoculation, medicine to treat diseases, set broken bones, open and accessible healthcare, sutures
math: Arabic concept of decimal system, concept of zero
Mauryan Dynasty
strong empire founded by Chandragupta Maurya, in 326 BC in northwest India, defeated by Alexander the Great, Chandragupta Maurya (inspired by Alexander) seized throne of Magadha in 321 which marked start of Mauryan Empire, by 303 BC empire controlled northern India and much of Afghanistan, strong centralized government, gained control of most of India, greatest city: Pataliputra (Mauryan capital) with palaces/temples/parks, government controlled economy and operated mines/other enterprises, emperor owned all land, farmers paid rent and taxes to use land, money funded government and army, after death of Ashoka in 232 BC empire declined, Ashoka’s sons battled for power→central control weakened and distant provinces slipped away, in 184 BC last Mauryan emperor killed by one of generals and empire collapsed after 140 years total
Chandragupta Maurya
leader of Magadha, gained control and began to conquer surrounding kingdoms, inspired by the brief conquest of Alexander the Great, seized the throne of Magadha’s kingdom around 321, marked by historians as the beginning of the Mauryan Empire, built a huge army with about 600,000 soldiers with thousands of chariots and war elephants, used this army to begin defeating India, conquered Seleucus I- one of Alexander’s generals who had invaded northwest India- in 305 BC, controlled his empire and crushed resistance to his rule by enforcing a strong, centralized government, in 301 gave up throne to become a Jainist monk, son became emperor and then grandson Ashoka in about 270 BC
Megasthenes
Greek ambassador who visited the Mauryan Empire while it was under Chandragupta’s rule, wrote about his observation of a prosperous land
Asoka
emperor of the Mauryan Empire, came to rule in 270 BC, Buddhism reached its peak in India in the 200s BC during his reign, became a Buddhist and gave up military conquest after the brutality of a conquest in Kalinga, helped to spread Buddhism into all India’s parts, encouraged missionaries to take the message of the Buddha to lands outside India- sent missionaries east into Southeast Asia where it took a secure hold on kingdoms that would later become Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam, also spread Buddhism into Indonesian lands
Silk Road
overland trade routes linking India to markets from the Mediterranean Sea to Africa and India
Gupta Empire
Gupta dynasty took over northern India around AD 320 after India had been divided for about 400 years, northern India was reunited, Indian society prospered, Hinduism grew in popularity, dynasty rose to power in Magadha, rule less centralized than Mauryan rule- divided main parts of empire into units, royal officials ruled each unit, ruled through local rulers in distant areas that were conquered, local rulers possessed power but still had to pay tribute to the Guptas and occasionally travel to the Gupta court, power expanded under Chandra Gupta I’s heirs, Hinduism became India’s main religion again- Gupta rulers supported the building of Hindu temples, promoted Hindu writing’s revival, also supported other religions (Buddhism and Jainism), but Buddhism still began to lose influence during this period, rule began to weaken in the late 400s- infirm control in conquered areas led some parts of the empire to break away, military efforts to defend empire drained treasury, rule ended around 550 and India reverted back into a number of small, divided, regional kingdoms
Chandragupta II
Samadra Gupta’s son, Gupta Empire reached its height under him, ruled from 375-415, further stretched the empire and strengthened its economy, reign was a period of prosperity and cultural achievement in India
Fa Xian
Chinese Buddhist man who traveled to India during the reign of Chandra Gupta II, journey was from 399-414, described the people of the empire as rich and prosperous, also wrote that the punishments were fair and capital punishment was not utilized by the government
Huns
Central Asian nomads who started to invade India, their invasion- and other issues- weakened the Gupta Empire and disrupted trade
Rajputs
Mahmud
Tamerlane
Babur’s ancestor, great general from Central Asia
Sultanate of Delhi
new government established by Muslims for North India after they had taken over it, called “Delhi Sultanate” since it was based upon the city of Delhi, rulers were tolerant- allowed Indian people to practice traditional religions and cultures, still worked to spread Muslim culture across India (scholars and artists from other parts of of the Islamic world were invited to Delhi), new culture mixing Muslim and Indian elements was formed, remained powerful for about 300 years, power was weakened by the early 1500s and India was left open for invasion
Duarte Barbosa
Mughal Empire
founded by Babur in 1526 (by the same time that he had defeated Delhi’s rulers), Mughals reigned as the first Muslim empire of India- one of history’s great civilizations, name comes from Mogul, the Persian word for “Mongol”-, empire was known for its wealth and its power
Akbar
Babur’s grandson, organized what Babur had conquered when Babur died, became the greatest Mughal ruler of all even though he was only 13 when he took the throne in 1556, united the territory north of the Vindhya Range under one empire
Babur
seemed destined to be a conqueror at birth, name means “tiger”, became king of a small territory in Central Asia called Fergana at age 11, descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan (greatest conqueror in Asian history), originally named Zahir ud-Din, young conqueror of Central Asia, took advantage of the weaknesses of India, ambition was to build an immense empire that would rival Timur’s, prepared to defeat India in 1525 as part of his building of an empire, he and his army were greeted by the Indian army while marching deep into India towards Delhi (capital), faced off near the small village of Panipat, his army was totally outnumbered (had only about 12,000 troops to 100,000, had no elephants while rivals had about 1000), battle seemed hopeless at first but his army was better trained and disciplined, had a secret weapon: cannons (never been used in India before, first shots surprised Indians, elephants were afraid of the shots so they turned and ran through Indian army, he won the war in a couple of hours, victory is marked by historians as the start of a new Indian empire, died shortly after his conquest
Shah Jahan
Jahangir’s son as well as successor, loved literature and art like his father, Mughal Empire experienced a cultural golden age during his reign, built a new capital for India at Delhi, built Taj Mahal, chamber holding the Peacock Throne was in the heart of the capital, imposed heavy taxes on India’s people so he could pay for the monuments- demanded half of all the crops grown in the country, leading to hardship and famine for a number to people, launched a series of wars against the neighbors of India, many of these wars were fought in the name of Islam against Christians and Hindus (he was a Muslim who did not practice religious tolerance)
zamindars
Aurangzeb
seized power after jailing ill father and cutting off brother’s head, expanded India’s borders, imposed strict Sunni Muslim views, issued decrees about morality and personal behavior, appointed officials to enforce them, persecuted Hindus/Sikhs (taxed them, forbade them from high government positions, destroyed temples), when Shia and Sufi Muslims protested ordered soldiers to crush them, frequent rebellions broke out, after death rival claims to throne led to civil war and invaders poured into India from north
East India Company
British “company” that took India as a colony of Britain
Mohandas Gandhi
India gained independence after WWII led by Mohandas Gandhi
What were four common themes in Indian history?
life dominated by agriculture, trade, and spirituality, strong value placed on asceticism (go to extremes for religion, ex. fasting), relatively few kingdoms/ empires (mostly small-scale societies, NOT united), invaders only came from the West, many languages (Sanskrit-oldest-, Hindu/Urdu, English, etc.), strict class system (no intermarriage, strict behavior rules, based on birth, determines profession), subordinate roles of women (declined over time-women were originally soldiers-, partriarchial society- woman lives with man’s family-, marriage tradition de-value women, abuse, female infanticide, Sati- self-immolation of Brahmin widows), sources of history, disunity among many kingdoms
List four major empires/kingdoms in Indian history.
Mauryan Empire, Gupta Empire, Mughal Empire, Tamil kingdoms
Why is Asoka such a celebrated Indian leader?
most admired for his decision to give up military conquest and become a Buddhist after the brutality of a conquest in Kalinga, promoted policy of right conduct after converting (had views and actions inscribed on rocks and stone pillars, sent out Buddhist missionaries to spread his message to foreign lands, urged people to adopt religious tolerance), worked to improve the lives of people (founded hospital- for animals as well-, had new wells dug, new roads built, shade trees planted, and rest homes built for weary travelers along the empire’s roads), famous for his many roles (warrior, empire-builder, peaceful Buddhist)
Describe how India prospered by controlling trade routes.
What caused tensions between Muslims and Hindus in India?
temple locations (sometimes Hindu temples destroyed by Muslims), Muslims did not like the many gods of Hinduism, food issues (Hindu vegetarians vs. Muslim omnivores), Muslim ideas of purity clashed with Hindu open-ness about sexuality, conflicts over the issues of class
What Hindu practices did some Muslims adopt?
What did Hindus learn from the Muslims?
What were the policies of Akbar? How did they affect life in India?
fought to prevent rebellion, unified his diverse empire through promoting religious tolerance (believed that no religion at all could answer all of life’s problems, did not want to discourage the practice of any religion or discriminate against anyone for their beliefs, eliminated taxes on non-Muslims that earlier rulers had initiated, appointed Hindus to multiple positions in his government, encouraged Muslims, Hindus, Christians and others to discuss and debate amongst each other), kept a strong grip on government and finances (established a centralized government framework in order to have ultimate civil and military authority over his empire, reformed tax systems and appointed officials- most of whom were from outside of India- to oversee it so as to keep better track of the finances of the empire
What effect did Europeans have upon India?
got involved because of trade (spices), Portugal- trading post of Goa, Britain- East India Company (India became a colony but gained independence after WWI led by Mohandas Gandi), wrote account of history