Hiv Prevention

HIV/AIDS LIFE SKILLS – EDC 121 – TONI SYLVESTER Nataniel P. Marthinus Student Nr. 3142910 Assignment 1 Due Date: 01 March 2011 INTRODUCTION1 Eight Fundamental considerations or steps to be followed before and after administering a blood test for HIV. 1 Voluntary Counseling & Testing1 Food and Nutrition1 Prevention & Onward Transmission of HIV1 Follow-up Counseling1 Stigma & Discrimination2 Spiritual Support2 Sexually Transmitted Infections2 Palliative Care2 Strategies for the provision of HIV-related Treatment, care and support services2

Ensuring the continuation of education (EDC121 Course Reader: 41)2 Providing psychosocial support for children (EDC121 Course Reader: 42)2 Treatment education at school2 Successful school-based HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support programmes3 Caring School Environment3 Child Centered Programmes3 Build on existing services3 Community Involvement3 The UNAIDS (2000) article4 Demographic effects4 Health effects4 Family-life effects4 Welfare effects4 Education effects4 UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS5 REFERENCES6 INTRODUCTION HIV/AIDS is the fastest growing epidemic here in Africa.

In fact, the virus is so widespread you will find people with the virus all over the world. According to statistics in November 2007, people living with HIV & AIDS around the world are the most in Africa. It also shows that the disease occurs mostly around infants who acquire the virus from their mother. (EDC121 Course Reader: 55). I will be discussing various topics concerning the virus. Eight Fundamental considerations or steps to be followed before and after administering a blood test for HIV. Voluntary Counseling & Testing

Through counseling and knowledge of the virus, it could help a person with following a healthy lifestyle so that he or she can live longer and prevent other infections. People who learn that they are negative could learn to change their behavior towards people living with the virus. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Food and Nutrition Good nutrition only cannot keep a person permanently healthy. Nevertheless it may help lengthen the lifespan of a person living with HIV. Nutrition plays a huge role in the medication process of a person living with HIV. It can also increase the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby. EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Prevention & Onward Transmission of HIV Counseling on sexual behavior is advised. Provide condoms and must have a supportive environment. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Follow-up Counseling HIV affects all aspects of a person’s life. It can help someone understand, live with and accept their status. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Stigma & Discrimination Stigma is fueled by mythical concepts. Thus it is a barrier to prevent future infections and further treatment. Communities have a various concepts around AIDS and how the virus is spread.

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This indicates a lack of knowledge and understanding towards the disease. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Spiritual Support Support from spiritual leaders and priests may be comforting. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Sexually Transmitted Infections STI co-contribute to HIV transmission. If treated, it can help reduce AIDS spread through sexual intercourse and can keep a person healthier for longer. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Palliative Care Because of a lack of health infrastructure there are insufficient Palliative care institutes for people who are approaching the end of their lives.

Palliative care provides comfort and support for people who are terminally ill and helps people die a comfortable death. (EDC121 Course Reader: 37) Strategies for the provision of HIV-related Treatment, care and support services Ensuring the continuation of education (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Providing psychosocial support for children (EDC121 Course Reader: 42) Treatment education at school HIV-positive learners and educators will need support in their workplace and the learning environment so that they can get treatment whilst on school grounds.

Here are a few related issues: * Treatment support for HIV-positive students; * Support for students and teachers to visit medical centers for checkups; * How the affects of the treatment will impact on the learner and educators ability to teach and learn; * Adapting to the curricula of HIV & AIDS so that the learners and teachers wont teach information that is out of date; * Educating students about treatment and the harm caused caused by stigma and discrimination so that they can give better support to their parents and families. (EDC121 Course Reader: 43) * Home-based care and education

Across Southern Africa, in many schools students and teachers are providing outreach work to support the community members. This support can be categorized as follows: * Learners supporting sick members of the community; * Educators proving home-based educations to sick students. (EDC121 Course Reader: 43) * Universal precautions (EDC121 Course Reader: 44) * Support for basic needs (EDC121 Course Reader: 44) * Teaching livelihood skills (EDC121 Course Reader: 45) * Social grants (EDC121 Course Reader: 45) Successful school-based HIV/AIDS treatment, care and support programmes Caring School Environment It is a work-based policy based on the rights of children. * The recreation of opportunities for staff and students. (EDC121 Course Reader: 46) Child Centered Programmes * Policies reflecting a rights-based approach. * Children and young people should be involved in the design and carrying out of the programmes. (EDC121 Course Reader: 46) Build on existing services * Uniting HIV elements with existing policies rather than letting it stand alone. (EDC121 Course Reader: 46) Community Involvement * Policies that are developed with close consultation with members of the community. Strategy development including more help of men in the care and support system. * Socioculturally sensitive policies without compromising the shared fundamental traits of the programme. (EDC121 Course Reader: 46) The UNAIDS (2000) article Demographic effects Half of South Africa’s population are children and more then 60% of them live in poverty. Because there is an association between poverty levels and HIV infection, this percentage can serve as a figure for the number of children with AIDS. (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Health effects Children that lives in an infected community struggles with ill health and poor nutrition.

In rural areas children’s nutritional status suffers because they are dependant on household labour. (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Family-life effects The household traditional structures is changing in communities that are affected and children that are vulnerable need to adapt to the demands of a non-traditional family and further deepening poverty. (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Welfare effects Economically families and households are very hard hit by this. Because of illnesses and poor health productive family members they are often unable to work.

Families are poor and are more vulnerable by the cost of illness and care. (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Education effects Poor attendance in school already characterizes the landscape of South African education. HIV-infected children do not want to go public with their status. They do not want to feel ashamed at school. (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Psychosocial effects Children’s psychosocial hardship and emotional shock is often not as visible as other problems but central importance. There are various difficult challenges that children have to face such as grief, loss of identity, stigma, rejection, death, etc. EDC121 Course Reader: 41) Orphanhood effects Disrupted families and death of parents and close relatives have created a huge number of abandoned South African children. By some calculations the number of orphans will have grown 9-12% of the countries population by 2015. (EDC121 Course Reader: 41) UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS Precautions basically include: – Caring for wounds- Have emergency supplies on hand – Cleaning up blood spills- Gloves – Safely disposing of medical supplies- Medicines (EDC121 Course Reader: 44) REFERENCES EDC121 Course Reader, 2011

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