Hock Studies Set 2 Study #1 Reading 14: Just How are you intelligent? Garder, H. (1983) Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Main focus or purpose: Howard Garder introduced to the world this new view of multiple intelligences. “Just how are you intelligent? ” is unrelated to amount of overall intelligence and asks instead about the nature of your particular type of intelligence. Primary Research Methods: Gardner developed a set of either indicators or “signs” that define intelligence.
Any intellectual ability, or set of abilities, must map onto most of these criteria, if it is to be considered a separate, autonomous intelligence. Main Results Reported: Each different type of intelligence varied in results. The following were tested Linguistic intelligence- able to use words that are more skillful. Musical Intelligence- gifted abilities involving sound, especially pitch, timbre and rhythm. Logical-mathematical intelligence- analyzes and computes various relationships among abstract objects, concepts, and ideas.
Spatial intelligence- skilled in creating, visualizing, and manipulating mental images. Intrapersonal intelligence- able to understand who you are. Weaknesses or Critique: Some concerns based on learning disabilities—how they would test differently. Some argue that not all intelligence was properly tested by Garder—“sexual intelligence, digital intelligence” Importance/Value: As human beings its important for us to understand which part of our brain is strongest. It can help one find a well fitting job later on. People want to practice what they are naturally good at—so testing this is important.
Study #2 Reading 25- Are you the master of your fate? Rotter, J. B. (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28 Main focus or purpose: Are the consequences of your behavior under your personal control or are they determined by forces outside of yourself? Rotter wanted to study differences among people on this dimension and, rather then simply asking them, e developed a test that measured a person’s locus of control. Primary Research Methods: Rotter designed a scale containing a series of many pairs of statements.
Each pair consisted of on statement reflecting an internal locus of control and one reflecting an external locus of control. Those taking the test were told to select the one statement of each pair, which you more strongly believe to be the case. This is a measure of personal belief. Rotter called his test to I-E scale. Main Results Reported: Gambling- individuals identified as internals by the I-E scale tended to prefer betting on sure things. Persuasion- internals were found to be more successful than externals in altering the attitudes of others.
Achievement motivation-plans to attend college, amt of time spent on hw—more likely to be found in those students who demonstrated an internal locus of control. Rotter hypothesized that those with an internal locus of control are more likely then externals to gain information from situations, take the initiative to make change, place greater value on inner skill and achievement goals, and are more able to resisted manipulation by others. Weaknesses or Critique: There are not any right or wrong answers in this study. Everything is just based on one individual, which is time consuming for the ones doing the studies.
Importance/Value: After being tested—easier to be placed in a fitting environment. It’s important for us to know control. Study #3 Reading 30; You’re getting defensive again Freud, A. (1946). The ego and the mechanisms of defense. New York: International Universities Press. Main focus or purpose: Sigmund Freuds discovery of ego defense mechanisms occurred gradually over 30 or more years as his experiences in dealing with psychological problems grew. Primary Research Methods: Freud claimed to have discovered the defense mechanisms gradually over many years of clinical interactions with his patients.
Main Results Reported: Anna Freud identified 10 defense mechanisms that had been described by her father. Five of the original mechanisms that are commonly used and widely recognized today are discussed repression, regression, projection, reaction, formation, and sublimation. Weaknesses or Critique: researchers question some of Anna freuds theories. Do defense mechanisms really exist? Do they actually function unconsciously? Importance/Value: People now have a much better understanding of mechanisms. Study #4 Reading 31: Learning to be depressed Seigman, M. E. P. , &maier, S. F (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock.
Main focus or purpose: Martin Seligman (psychologist), proposed that our perceptions of power and control are learned from experience. Martin believes that a persons efforts at controlling certain life events fail repeatedly, the person may stop attempting to exercise control all together. Primary Research Methods: Subjects for this experiment were 24 “mongrel dogs”, 15 to 19 inches high at the shoulder and weighing between 25-29 pounds. The dogs were divided into 2 groups of 8. One group was the escape group and the other was the non-escape group. They were individually harnessed and but not completely unable to move.
A series of shocks were given to the dogs to see which ones tried to escape. Main Results Reported: In the escape group the time it took for the dogs to press the shock panel quickly decreased over the 64 shocks. In the no escape group, panel pressing completely stopped after 30 tries. Weaknesses or Critique: It’s hard for some to read about animals being used for testing. It’s important for researchers to use them for answers but no abuse should ever take place. Importance/Value: We understand that individuals are more likely to become depressed if they lack control of of situational experience.
Study #5 Reading 35: Projections of who you are Rorschach, H. (1942) Psychodiagnostics: A diagnostic test based on perception. New York: Grune & Stratton Main focus or purpose: Roschach’s showed that in the course of interpreting random inkblot, attention would be drawn away from the persons so that his or her usual psychological defenses would be weakened. Primary Research Methods: Roschach form of interpretation test is administered simply by handing a person each figure, one at a time and asking, “What might this be? Participants were free to turn the card in ant direction and hold it as close to or as far from their eyes as they wish. Main Results Reported: He found that subjects generally gave a total of 5 to 30 totally responses to the 10 figures. Depressed individuals gave less answers, those that were happy gave more, and among the mentally ill answers varied. Weaknesses or Critique: Weather or not what Rorschach claimed to measure was accurate. Other researches suggest that there are better ways to test this. Importance/Value: Rorschach’s research will help studies that are done on the same concepts.
Study #6 It’s Not Just About Salivating Dogs! Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes. London: Oxford University Press. Main Focus or Purpose: In this study, Pavlov wanted to use physiological research involving the use of dogs as subjects to test the role of salvation on digestion. Test how, when, and why an animal would salivate, what could cause it…Unconditional reflex or conditioned reflexes? Primary Research Methods To test this, they would introduce various types of food or nonfood substances into a dogs mouth and observe the rate and amount of salvation.
Then they would associate a sound or smell that would occur before that dog gets introduced to the food. Then after noticing that the bell leads to food the dog would therefore begin to salivate by just hearing the noise. Main Results Reported Pavlov theorized that the dogs had learned from experience in the lab to expect food following certain signals. Although these certain signals do not naturally produce salivation, the dogs came to associate them with the food and salivating with the expectancy of the foods arrival. Weaknesses or Critique
There were no true weaknesses or critiques to this research and work. Importance/Value: This experiment and intense observation was very important because it is now universally accepted and has remained virtually unchanged since its conception. His theories of classical conditioning explain a major proportion of human behavior and helped launch psychology as a true science. Study #7 Little Emotional Albert Watson, J. B. , & Rayner, R. (1920). Conditoned emotional Responses. Journal of Expiermental Pyschology, 3, 1-14. Main Focus or Purpose:
The main purpose of this study was to test if our human behavior is based on that idea that we are motivated by unconscious instincts and repressed conflicts from early childhood. Primary Research Methods: The methods for this particular study were simple; they took 9 month old Albert from a hospital where he had been raised as an orphan since birth. They then wanted to see if Albert was naturally afraid of certain stimuli, they placed a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, a dog and masks in front of him, and he naturally grabbed for most of the objects since they didn’t produce any fear (neutral stimuli).
They then paired a loud frightening noise (unconditioned stimuli) with the presentation of each animal and he then cried every time, even just with the sight of the animal because he associated it with that same fear. Main Results Reported Albert was not originally afraid of the rats prior to the conditioning, but then after the conditioning he instantly feared the rat and even the Santa Clause mask that had a similar white appearance. Weaknesses or Critique: Study like this would not be acceptable now days.
It is very questionable to ethical reasoning; to take a child at an early age and purposely frighten it is just not right. Importance/Value: This study succeeded to a large extent in convincing many in the psychological community that the emotional behavior could be conditioned through simple stimulus response techniques. Also proved that human behavior is based on that idea that we are motivated by unconscious instincts and repressed conflicts from early childhood. Study #8 Knock Wood! Skinner, B. F. (1948). Superstition in the pigeon. Journal of Expiermental Psychology, 38, 168-172
Main Focus or Purpose: Skinnier wanted to test if the reason people do superstitious acts (like knocking on wood for example), do this because they believe or presume a connection exists between the superstitious behavior in a certain setting and a reinforcing consequence exists. Primary Research Methods: The researchers used a empty cage or box that only had an empty dish or tray in which food is dispensed. This allows the researchers to have control over when the animal receives reinforcement, such as pellets of food. The early conditioning had a lever, which if pushed, would cause food to be dispensed.
They then put pigeons into experimental cage for a few minutes each day, and then food reinforcement was delivered automatically every 15 seconds. Main Results Reported: In 6 out of 8 cases the resulting response were so clearly defined that two observers could agree perfectly in counting instances. Eventually, the pigeons behaved as if a certain behavior would produce the food, they became superstitious. Weaknesses or Critique: On the specific issue of superstitions, however, there appears to be less controversy and a rather wide acceptance of the learning process involved in their formation.
Importance/Value: This was important because none of these behaviors had been observed in the birds prior to the condition procedure. Study #9 See Aggression… Do Aggression! Bandura, A. , Ross, D. , & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582. Main Focus or Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine how children may learn to be aggressive. If they learn by observation and imitation or any other influential factors. Primary Research Methods:
The researchers exposed children to adult models who behave either aggressively or non-aggressively. The children would then be tested in a new situation without the model present to determine to what extent they would imitate the acts of aggression they had observed in the adult. Main Results Reported: The children who were exposed to the violent models tended to imitate the exact violent behaviors they observed. Weaknesses or Critique: The results were so inconsistent in relation to the aggression-inhibiting effect of nonaggressive models that they were inconclusive. Importance/Value:
This research formed the foundation for hundreds of studies over the past 45 years on the effects on children of viewing violence in person or in the media. Study #10 Just How Are You Intelligent? Gardner, H. (1938) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New Yorkk: Basic Books. Main Focus or Purpose: In this study, Garden wanted to test if there were multiple different types of intelligences rather than just one general intelligence that can be tested by an IQ test. He also wanted to further extend the theory of brain specialization, to see if different parts of the brain are responsible for different intelligences.
Primary Research Methods: Gardner developed a set of eight indicators or “signs” that define an intelligence. Any intellectual ability, or set of abilities, will then be mapped onto these criterias. He separated the intelligences into 9 main ones: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, and existential and then performed test to determine what category or categories one might fall under. Main Results Reported: This study showed and proved that people are intelligent in many more ways than just “book smart”.
It gave us proof that a student can still be very bright even if that student is struggling in math or English. Weaknesses or Critique: Many question, what about the children or adults with learning disabilities? But after these tests, Gardner then changed that into learning differences. Importance/Value: Hundreds of scientific articles and books now rest on Gardner’s theory. His theory has remained unchanged and survived for over two decades now and shows no sign of fading. He changed forever how the world looks at learning, teaching and intelligence.