HOD 1000 Midterm Study Guide 2. 28. 12 Tips: 1 Know Lecture 2 Know how they are applicable 3 Know Lemme 4 Take the test carefully …50 multiple choice questions a. Underline the important words like: i. “All,” “Nothing” or “None”Lemme * Look for models on development * Models for Understanding Development * Trait Model * Be aware of what the 5 traits mean * “Openness” and “Agreeableness” Self & Identity 3 things determine importance of Memories: 1 Frequency a How often something occurs 2 Duration 3 Intensity Internal Working Model:
The internal working model is how we view/what we believe about ourselves, others and the world. It influences what we expect of and from ourselves, others and the world in general and directs how we respond. It begins to form as soon as we are born and is based on experiences with others and the outcomes of our efforts. An infant that experiences frequent abuse or neglect can develop a negative internal working model that “says” no one cares about me, I am unlovable, people who are suppose to love me only hurt or reject me, it doesn’t matter what I do or say it is ineffective or not good enough, I an’t trust people as one time they are nice and the next time they are mean. etc. If this “model” of self, others and the world and how things work is not corrected the result may be a child or adult that has low self-esteem, is overly dependent or independent, overreacts to situations, sabotages relationships, jobs and/successes, gives up easily, etc. Or an infant that receives consistent, responsive, attuned nurturing from his/her caregivers is most likely to develop a positive internal working model. SocioCultural Current ———— Beliefs ——– Goals ——— Strategies Life Experience (affects them all)
Beliefs In: I. Self * Concepts * What you think of yourself as a whole * Efficacy * Confidence in what you do * Esteem * How you feel about yourself, as in self-worth * The more esteem you have, the more efficacy you have * Not true, typically in the African-American population; based on discrimination * Strong in-group/out-group bias can contribute to low self-efficacy II. Others 3 Domains: 1 All People 2 Groups of People 3 Specific Individuals III. World 1 Overall Views 2 Explanation of outcomes 3 Making sense of the world, making cause and effect relationships Goals 4 Domains: Physical Well-Being a Desire for safety, comfort and pleasure 2 Personal Competence b Desire for significance and success 3 Relational Closeness c Desire for friendship, love, and acceptance 4 Self-Transcendence d Desire for meaning and a lasting contribution to the world, or whatever you deem necessary e [Mitch Albom (Tuesdays with Morrie) is missing the Self-Transcendence] Strategies 4 domains: 1 Affect Regulation a Coping with anxiety, emotions 2 Interpersonal Skills b Active listening, etc 3 Problem Solving 4 Task Management Schema * This is how you organize data in the world 2 ways of using that information: 1 Assimilation a Putting the new information into already-existing categories b Always try to assimilate over accommodate 2 Accommodation c When you have to change your schema to fit the new information * Equilibration is * A sense of cognitive harmony or balance * People desire this, to bring (or keep) their system in order. If not: * Disequilibration results * The major impetus for cognitive development; info inconsistent with our existing worldview disrupts equilibration, placing us in an unpleasant cognitive state (conflict, dissonance, inconsistency)
From Lemme Equation for Self-Esteem: Self-Esteem = Self Concept / Ideal Self Difference between Reliability and validity (pg. 13) Reliablity * Consistency or stability over time * Will the results obtained be consistent if the study is done again, or are they influence by some fluctuating factor, such that we cannot arrive at the same findings in all similar situations? * Problems with reliability must be resolved in order to have confidence in findings Validity * The degree to which your experimental results can be applied to external population Terms that connect directly to things in lecture: * Looking Glass Self * Take others’ perceptions of you to formulate your own self concept Generalized Other (p 78) * We begin to take the perspective of society and its values and expectations in judging ourselves; * Basically, incorporating societal standards into our sense of self Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development 1 Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1) 2 Autonomy vs. Doubt (1-3) 3 Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6) 4 Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11) 5 Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20) Related to one’s commitment to occupation, religious beliefs and political ideology and whether or not those commitments have been made after a period of exploration or crisis b James Marcia added the domains of gender-role attitudes and beliefs about sexual expression 6 Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40) c Developing capacity for close intimate relationships without losing one’s sense of self d Dependent on the existence of a solid identity (previous stage) e In not resolved, leads to loneliness and isolation 7 Generativity vs. Self-Absorption (40-65) A concern for future generations and society as a whole g Midlife transition?? h Psychological origins are in adolescence and young adulthood i Periodic longing for meaning and purpose that is outward focused and which occurs throughout adolescence and adulthood 8 Integrity vs. Despair (65+) j Integrity refers to the ability to look back over life with satisfaction and little or no regrets i Acceptance of death ii Saying goodbye to loved ones iii Finishing the “race” with dignity k Despair include bitterness and regret over life There is a sense of fear and despair as one approaches m 4 types of Generativity: Articles * Why the Self is Empty * What does Media/Advertising suggest people use to fill up their empty self? – Consumption of material goods – Psychotherapy * Emerging Adulthood * Extending Education * Marriage Late * Increased Life Expectancy The Forgotten Half · Who comprises the Forgotten Half? Coherent Life 1. Meaningful a. Goal domain: Self Transcendence b. Strategies: Increase Generativity (from Erikson’s 8 stages) 2. Comprehensible 3. Manageable I. Identity Development Lecture
Critical Models to Understand Alternatives 1. Bronfenbrenner’s Systems Theory a. In the Middle you have you, then the MicroSystem (tend to be Dyadic); next Meso, interaction between the domains (the way work environment affects your home environment, visa versa); then, EXOsystem (things that influence your microsystems; might not have direct influence though); Lastly, MACROsystem: Society, how it has scripts, norms, blueprints for how things should go 2. Levinson b. Know what the major stages are and their ORDER c. Although, exact age questions will probably not be in the exam d.
Don’t spend too much time, initially, on this 3. Marsha e. Diffusion—no commitment, no crisis, not acknowledging a problem f. Fore closure—comittment, but not crisis—you’ve taken a value someplace else. This is the way things are. An uncritical acceptance of a value or belief. g. Moratorium—crisis, no commitment. You’re evaluating beliefs and values you have. If you want to keep them or find others. Achievement—commitment and crisis. You can be critical of beliefs goals and values without it affecting your identity h. 2 Forces acting on you are: i. Crisis ii. Commitment . Understand the characteristics of people in each of those stages; be able to place a described person into one of those stages and know how you can move them 4. Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development i. Throughout a lifetime, each person moves through the 8 stages j. Movement from one to another is based on a crisis or a conflict; k. If not, you get stuck in that stage and can’t move on l. Arguments against it: iii. It’s generalized m. Attachment Styles iv. <- —-Avoidant (Detached)——- Secure (Differentiated)—– Anxious/Ambivalent [(Dif)fused]- -> n.
Stress brings out one of these two undesirable qualities v. Securely Attached-Healthy relationships, trust people but not naive about it vi. Differentiated 5. TRAIT Model p 67 o. Know what traits are generally about p. Collectivism v. Individualism vii. Collectivism-Little individual thought, for the good of the group and not necessarily for the good of the person. Chinese Society viii. Individualism-Individualist Society. American Society ix. Fits into the MACROsystem section of Systems Theory Emerging Adulthood
Detached/Avoidant——Differentiated/Secure—–Diffused/Anxious-Ambiv. Family Systems Lecture 1. Life Forces: a. Differentiation: Begin independent, making yourself different from people around you b. Togetherness: Fitting in v. Standing Out c. Pseudo Self-Extremes: Detached, Diffused d. A lot of significance of close and family relationships 2. Family Roles (Chart with lecture notes is great! ): e. Hero, First-Born: Fear of failure; over-controlled f. Scapegoat, 2nd Born: Fear of rejection, shame, Wants to stand out from oldest, Tend to lean to the avoidant side of the scale g.
Lost Child-Middle child syndrome, Unable to express feelings, Witness the battle between siblings and parents, Introverted h. Mascot: Youngest, Hides pain with humor, immature, feels inadequate, Instead of withdrawing from tension, they try to ease it with humor, More anxious ambivalent 3. Influences on Family System i. Direct: Parents yell at you j. Indirect: Watching parents yell at sibling k. Reciprocal: The way you affect your parents; influence never goes one way i. As you’re being yelled at by your parents, the way you respond impacts your parents 2 Types of Anxiety . Chronic: Ongoing, Nagging feeling that something will go wrong or that you’re just wrong in general, Produced in family systems with a lot of conflict, Pushes you to either be fused or avoidant 2. Acute: Limited; normal, Will disappear with the not-so-serious situation, Ways to Bind Anxiety 1. Healthy: Exercising, talking to someone, using reflective skills 2. Unhealthy: Eating disorders, physical manifestations of symptoms (headaches, stomach aches) Highly Differentiated People: Secure, self-directed, Responsible for self
What is a Triangle: Basic way to look at a relationship is a dyad; but when instability occurs, there’s a tendency to bring in a 3rd party. Using them, directly, to diffuse the problem is a bad thing Ways to De-Triangle 1. Emotionally Neutral, Supportive, Active Listening, Facilitating Problem Solving, Encouragement a. Worse thing to do: “Oh, let me talk to them FOR you. ” 2. Active Listening, Paraphrasing, Repeat some of their claims back to them to help them understand, Probing, Asking questions to do a bit more door opening Cognitive Distortions
Check Bainey for: · Listening Skill Clusters · Barriers to Active Listening HOD 1000 Review Session * Memorization and application * Achieved in their identity vs. centrally attached * How to apply the lecture material * Don’t spend too much time on ageism * Model for understanding development is more important—trait model! * 50 MCQ * Look out for “not” * Underline important words: all, nothing, not * If talking about mom, maybe it has to do with attachment * Memorize 5 traits: what they refer to. What does openness mean?
Don’t need to know all 7 measurements of openness. What’s the difference between agreeable and openness? First 3 lectures, questions * Self and Identity * The Internal Working Model!!! * Socio-cultural * Current beliefs, goals, strategiesactions=Life Experience * Past experiences-3 things determine importance * Frequency * Duration * Intensity * They determine how much previous experiences have a bearing on goals, beliefs, strategies. Beliefs=self, others and the world * Self: concept, efficacy, esteem Concept what you think of yourself as a whole, esteem how you feel about yourself/self-worth, efficacy is confidence in what you can do * More esteem, more efficacy you have except in the African-American population—due to discrimination * Strong in group-out group bias, you can develop high self-worth within group, but negative stereotypes in environment and their impact on opportunities affects efficacy * Others: people in general, groups of people, individuals * World: overall view, explanation of outcomes (making sense of the world, cause and effect relationships, predicting/avoiding events) * Goals=physical well-being, personal competence, relational closeness, self-transcendence. Mitch is missing self-transcendence * Strategies=affect regulations (dealing with emotions), interpersonal skills, problem-solving, task management * Schema * That’s how you organize knowledge about the world. You have to put all the knowledge you’ve taken in * Assimilation and accommodation Assimilation—Putting new info into existing categories * People prefer this/to keep things way they are. Equilibrium * Cognitive dissonance—things don’t fit together—desire equilibration and order * Accom—change your schema * Self-Concept page 82 Out of cognitive function people seek closure, permanence, and urgency * Know the 4 goal domains—needs, desires, fears related to them (physical well-being, bio, pscyho something) * Equation for self-esteem=self-concept/ideal self * Difference between reliability and validity p. 13 * Looking glass self and generalized other –they connect directly to stuff in the lecture * Re-read the empty self People use media, advertising, etc to fill up the empty self, psychotherapy, goods * A coherent life: meaningful, comprehensible, and manageable * Strategies to conduct a meaningful life: generativty vs. self-absorption (Erikson) * Reflection, comprehensible (can you understand world around you in a way there’s peace) Lecture 2 Identity Development * Bronfrenbrenner * You in the middle surrounded by microsystem of didactic relationships (any people you interact with on a day-to-day level directly) * Outside of this is meso—interaction between different domains. Way you work environment affects home environment. Microsystems are interacting.
Noisy roommate>cranky in class * Exo system—things that influence your microsystems—might not have direct interaction with. CEO and mail room person. * Macro system—society has blueprints * Levinson—know the major stages and its order * Unlikely it’ll be age, but who knows * Marsha 2 forces acting on you are crisis and commitment * Understand the characteristics of people here—if you were given a person as example know how to place them * Foreclosuremoratorium. A big event could challenge their beliefs and they haven’t resolved it yet * Need to be able to move between models * Erikson’s 8 stages of development p. 48 Lemme Throughout life, each person moves through stages * Movement from one to another is based on a crisis or conflict * If you don’t, you get stuck and can’t move on * Critiques: it’s generalized, there’s no general frame for development * Attachment styles The strange situation experiment * Avoidant—secure—-anxious ambivalent * Stress brings out one of these two undesirable characteristics * Securely attached—healthy relationships/balance, differentiated * Avoidant=detached, secure=differentiated, anxious ambivalent=fused * P. 67 trait model—know what traits are generally about * Collectivism vs. individualism * Operates in the macro system Emerging adulthood—why is adulthood emerging later in people now? * Extended education, marriage later, increased life expectancy, etc. * The forgotten half—who are they? Why are they left, what are the implications * No trigger word for his mom—always been that way means it’s probably a trait Lecture 3 Family Systems * What are the two life forces operating? Differentiation and togetherness * Differentiation—being independent, making yourself different from people around you * Togetherness—fitting in vs. standing out * Pseudo self=extremes. Detached, fused * A lot of significance of close and family relationships * 4 family roles—hero, scape goat, lost child, mascot Lost child—quiet, observant, inwardly focused, sees battle between hero and scapegoat. Goes into it but doesn’t get involved. * Mascot—instead of withdrawing, they try to ease it with humor—probs more anxious * See lecture notes * 3 kinds of influence—direct, indirect, and reciprocal * Parents yell at you, watching them yell at your siblings, as you’re being yelled at the way you respond impacts your parents * 2 types of anxiety—chronic and acute * Chronic anxiety produced in systems with a lot of conflict and that pushes you to be fused or detached * Cognitive distortions! Over gen, mind reading, all or nothing * Binding techniques for anxiety Unhealthy—alcohol, drugs, cutting, eating disorders, headaches/stomach aches, ways you respond to anxiety * Healthy—exercising, talking about it, reflecting, taking a nap, * List of things that highly differentiated people are in the lecture notes * Need to know them! * Triangle * Two people have a conflict and go to a third person to diffuse tension * Instability in that relationbringing someone else in to use them directly is unhealthy * 5 components of DE triangulating * Emotional neutrality—don’t take sides * Being supportive * Active listening * Facilitating problem-solving * Encouragement—resolve within the dyad * “let me talk to them for you” NO wrong meh * Paraphrasing and probing—repeating back what was said and asking questions * Baney listening skill clusters and barriers to active listening
Jesse never calls home doesn’t want to explain grade afraid of disappointing them * Both chronic and acute * Which of these is not a way ppl try to bind anxiety—using drugs, over studying, hanging out with friends, alcohol,, none of the above, b and c * Answer was none of the above– Ladder of inference Race and ethnicity—difference in way Martia’s identity status is organized Healthy outcome for achievement of minority—bicultural achievement—learning to adapt to different situations as a protective measure. Others should embrace equality and differences. Diffusion and foreclosuremoratoriumachievement Categorization and identification * Automatic, based on stereotypes, includes a prototype