UNIVERSITY OF SAN AGUSTIN GRADUATE SCHOOL MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SELECTION PROCESS: SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS ON THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SUBMITTED BY: MAY O. TOLENTINO SUBMITTED TO: DR. CARMEN N. HERNANDEZ Selection Process: Survival of the Fittest Introduction Charles Darwin first pondered this concept in his work On the Origin of Species during the 19th century in the context of the survival and extinction of biological species.
Later did Herbert Spencer coin the phrase to draw comparable idea on his economic theories. Survival of the fittest according to Darwin’s theory means that only the ones most suited to a particular environment will survive. Those who can’t adapt will surely perish, while those who can adapt will stick around, and maybe even become suited to new environments. We might ask did they discover anything that might be applicable to business in the 21st Century? Or its relevance could be also applied in human resource management more specifically in selection process?
Let us think of nature and ecological systems as a vast “free market” of perfect competition, where all living organisms are competing with each other for limited resources (sunlight, water, minerals, etc. )? Synonymous as to the many job applicants competing with each other in a struggle for survival or in plain employment term- to be hired. To be chosen as the best fitted candidate among the crowd of applicants for the one coveted position is indeed collectively tend to operate in ways analogous to natural eco-systems.
Is it possible that success and survival in the wild might be analogous to success and survival in the employment race? Selection can be conceptualized in terms of either choosing the fit candidates or rejecting the unfit candidates, or a combination of both. Selection process assumes that there are more candidates than the number of candidates actually selected, made possible through the recruitment process. According to Gupta (2006), selection is the process of choosing the suitable persons out of all the participants.
In this process, relevant information is collected through a series of steps so as to evaluate their suitability on the job to be filled. Furthermore, selection is the process of assessing the candidates in various means and making a choice followed with an offer of employment (Graham, 1998, p. 206). Selection is an important function as no organization can achieve its goal without selecting the right people, where wrong choice would lead to wastage of time, money and spoils the environment of the organization.
In this regard, scientific selection and placement of personnel will go a long way in building up a stable workforce, where it helps to reduce absenteeism and labor turnover as well as very helpful in increasing the efficiency and productivity of the organization (Dessler, 2005). Selection vs. Recruitment Selection is different from recruitment, where recruitment technically happens before selection. Recruitment involves identifying the sources of manpower and encourages them to apply for the job opening. On the other hand, selection is choosing the best out of those recruited.
Recruitment aims at increasing the number of applications for more choices. According to Prasad (2005), recruitment and selection differs in terms of objective, process, technique, and outcome which are discussed as follows: Firstly, the ultimate purpose of both is to acquire suitable candidates but their immediate objectives differ, where the basic objective of recruitment is to attract maximum number of candidates so that more choices are available; the basic objective of selection is to choose best out of the available candidates.
Secondly, recruitment differs from selection in terms of process, where it adopts the process of creating application as large as possible; while selection adopts the process of screening as fewer candidates or sometimes one candidate is selected. Thirdly, as to the techniques involve; recruitment techniques are not really intensive, requiring skills as against in selection process where highly specialized techniques are required.
Lastly, since both are interlinked steps in the process of manpower acquisition, they differ in terms of outcome; where the outcome for recruitment is application pool which become input for selection process which on the other hand the outcome is finalizing the candidates who will be offered jobs. Factors (Conditions) for Selection Process The basic idea in selection process is to solicit maximum possible information about the candidates to ascertain their suitability for the employment; and given the fact that there are factors which affect in collecting such information (Prasad, 2005, p. 06), he proposed the following factors which determine the steps in the selection process: 1. Various steps involve in the selection process depend on the type of personnel to be selected. For example, more information is required in the selection of a manager than a subordinate worker. 2. Selection process depends on the sources of recruitment and the method that is adapted for making contact with prospective candidates.
For example if we used tv ads, selection process is more time consuming and comprehensive whereas campus recruitment is shortened and maybe completed in a day. 3. Selection process depends on the number of candidates that are available for selection. If a large number of applicants, we also need to create various filtering points to reduce the number of applicants at a successive point while a small applicant turnout would mean lesser filtering points required. 4. Organization’s selection policy also determines the ways to be involved in the selection process.
For example in JBLFMU context, where selection of industry experts as Board Members are stipulated in the policy should be an alumnus of the university and hold the highest or president position of any international sponsored shipping companies in the Philippines. Gupta suggests that the selection process can be successful if the following conditions are met: 1. Someone should have the authority to select; where this authority comes from the employment requisition as developed through analysis of the workload and workforce. 2. There must be one standard of human resource with which applicant can be compared.
In other words, a comprehensive job description and job specification should be available beforehand. 3. There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees maybe selected. In this regard, recruitment and selection process invariably influence the whole matter of employment function in the organization. Steps in Selection Process Selection process consist of the series of steps; at each stage, facts may reveal something about a candidate that may either be a win or blow on his/her chances on the job. It is a series of barriers or challenges in which the applicant must cross.
These hurdles or screens are designed to eliminate unqualified candidate at any point in the selection process. There is no exact formula or standards to be used in all organizations or for all jobs. The complexity of selection procedures increases with the level of responsibility of the position to be filled. Therefore, the strategy and method used for selecting employees varies from firm to firm or from one job to another. For instance in JBLFMU, the recruitment and selection process differs to a faculty candidate and a personnel applicant.
Scholars of Human Resource Management such as Gupta, Prasad, Armstrong, and Ivancevich, suggested the following steps to be involved in employee selection process, though not necessarily to be implemented chronologically: 1. Preliminary Interview 2. Application Form 3. Selection Test (Physical, Cognitive and Personality Test) 4. Work Samples 5. Employment Interview 6. Medical Examination 7. Reference or Background Check 8. Final Approval 9. Employment 10. Induction 11. Follow-up or Evaluation Applicability of Selection Process in JBLFMU
In the context of JBLFMU environment; most of the above steps in selection process are applied both on academic and non-academic personnel, however the exercise does vary from the steps. For instance, in non-academic personnel once applications are received, short listing of applicants is done by the HR officer in respect to the applied jobs, preliminary interview is organized with the respective department head, methods of assessment is done by administering various forms like taking of aptitude or job related and personality tests.
Then those who passed will go to another round of final interview then final selection is done together with the department officer. Selected applicant is called to fill various forms including medical examination to effect his/her employment; if found fit is awarded offer of employment stipulating terms and conditions of employment. Duties are assigned and orientation is undertaken. But if all applicants happen to fail the standards of the selection process, the post will be advertised again for recruitment. As for academic personnel, the difference lies on the additional steps of a twice presentation of simulated teaching.
Then the person to approve the teaching plantilla will include the HR Officer, Subject Area Head, Dean of the College and the university administrator. To wit based from the theories discussed above, JBLFMU abides to the following steps in selection process: 1. Screening of applications, where available applications should be short listed in respect to their qualifications and experience in correspond to the job requirement. Only applicants who fit the bill should be interviewed. For large number of applicants, aptitude test could be used to screen them. 2.
Prepare for the interview, where at this step the type of interview is established, it can be I groups or individually; written or oral interview. Guideline and questions are prepared beforehand. 3. Develop factors and methods of assessment, where various score sheets and assessment forms are prepared in order to maintain consistency. 4. Conduct the interview or as for academic personnel a demo teaching, where at this stage applicants are given equal chance to demonstrate their strength and capabilities in respect to the requirement of the job. 5. To undertake cross referencing for interviewees.
Check resumes for related experiences and background check. 6. Communicating the decision to the candidates. At this stage the applicant is informed of the result via letter or phone call. The chosen candidate will be asked to come and fill required forms to effect the employment. 7. Requiring a medical examination on the selected applicant to avoid future problems that might affect job performance. 8. Offering letter of employment and filling required forms to effect employment functions, where in that contract stipulates terms and conditions of employment. 9. Placement and orientation.
It is at this step the JBLFMU selection process ends, where the employed applicant is endorsed under his/her supervisor followed by a company orientation. Conclusion Therefore, the basic objective of selection is to hire those candidates that are suitable or fitted for the position with a high probability of job success. A multiple hurdle plan is the best selection strategy. Selection hurdles or tests include pre-employment inquiries, application forms, initial screening interviews, background investigations, teaching demo for academic applicants and interviews.
Also, recruiting and selecting the right people for the company is a challenge, and every situation is unique. JBLFMU should be innovative, persistent and realistic, and can communicate the strength of the institution and the benefits of the position offered to attract high quality employees to build careers in the organization. Survival of the fittest in selection process perspective redounds to matching the best qualified candidate to fit the requisites or requirements of the job in achieving organizational goals. This in turn will mutually benefit the individual and the organization, as they adapt to the changing environment.
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