Human Transformations Unit 1

Human Transformations Unit 1

All of the listed traits characterize the human species. Which one of them has been the most important in allowing human beings to adapt and flourish?
a well-developed brain
Which statement offers the best rationale for studying world history?
World history examines how past generations have surmounted challenges and offers insights for future courses of action.
How did Paleolithic humans adapt to survive during the Pleistocene era?
They made more use of shelter and fire and developed warmer clothing.
Which statement most accurately describes the interplay of aesthetics, intellectual life, and religion during the Neolithic revolution?
Neolithic people studied the natural world to increase their understanding of the spiritual world.
Which statement most accurately reflects the state of world affairs during the Neolithic revolution?
Growing wealth and power led to suspicion, envy, and sometimes warfare among civilizations.
Which sequence best describes the order of migrations of Homo sapiens from the Middle East after emerging from Africa?
Europe, Australia, the Americas, East Asian islands
Which description best characterizes the economies of Paleolithic hunter-gatherer societies?
the nomadic hunter-gatherer groups owned few possessions and probably had no concept of private property.
Which statement about Paleolithic religious beliefs can archaeologists verify with material evidence?
Ritual burials of early hominids with food and possessions suggest that they believed in an afterlife.
Which item or items uncovered at an archaeological dig would indicate that the site probably dates from the Mesolithic era rather than the Paleolithic?
several finely shaped bone needles
Which tools and artifacts found at a Stone Age site would clearly identify it as a long-term camp for an early Paleolithic hunter-gatherer group?
a large fire pit, three broken projectile points, ten worn-out scrapers, and multiple fragments of burnt bone
Which statement best characterizes the effects the Agricultural Revolution and the world environment had on each other?
Agriculturalists and pastoralists had to exercise careful management of earth’s natural resources to avoid depleting them.
Which statement describing technological and agricultural innovations during the Neolithic era is most accurate?
Ground-stone tools improved so much in quality that they rendered chipped-stone tools obsolete.
Which factors would be most likely to influence a Neolithic group to give up hunting and gathering and engage in agriculture?
the assurance of an adequate, constant food supply
Who were the wealthiest and most prominent members of an agricultural society?
landowners
What is the most important change that surpluses of produce brought about in agricultural societies?
Agricultural societies could afford to support specialist artisans by trading excess food for goods and services.
What primary factor determined a man’s social class in Mesopotamian civilization?
the amount of his personal wealth
In all the Old World river civilizations, what relationship exists between specialization of labor and social structure?
Specialized labor contributed to the rise of social classes with products that customers bought for their prestige value.
What effect did Menes’ unification of Upper and Lower Egypt have on its governmental system?
The nation became a giant bureaucracy, with villages responsible to regions, which were responsible to the central government.
How did the construction of irrigation systems and other public works influence the development of political institutions in early river civilizations?
The finished public projects and increased population required a more complex, centralized government to provide leadership
What right did women in both the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations retain?
control over their real and personal property
What key feature of Egyptian culture is described in “The Judgment of the Dead”?
the evaluation of a dead person’s soul by the gods
Which of the following record-keeping strategies did the Egyptians use?
inscriptions of images on thin reed-based material
Which of the following best describes the difference between the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations?
The Mesopotamians invented cuneiform, while the Egyptians did not.
Which of the following best describes how King Hammurabi affected his society?
He developed a law code that punished criminals.
What type of governmental leadership did the Mesopotamians develop?
rule by a council of religious authorities
Which ancient people relied on the Huang Ho River?
the Shang
Which of the following best describes the cultural relationship between ancient Chinese and Phoenician cultures?
Both the Phoenicians and the Chinese developed writing systems that would have lasting effects
In which ancient civilization did the cities of Carthage and Tyre develop?
Phoenician
What was an essential difference between the Olmec and the Chavín peoples?
The Olmecs did not build their society close to a river, while the Chavín did.
Which of the following was true of ancient Chinese civilization?
Ancient Chinese civilization had a five-part social hierarchy.
Paleolithic era
“old stone” era. Most of the tools found so far have been made of stone.
Most of these “tools” are very crudely shaped and only recognized as “tools” because of the friction marks indicating wear
Pleistocene era
Cooling period
Also known as the last Ice Age
60-15 thousand yrs ago
Improved tools and clothing (constructed to warm and insulate the body)
Shelters (such as caves and huts with hearths for fire)
Mesolithic era
“middle stone” era
began 12 thousand yrs ago
Rate of innovation sped up
More sophisticated tools, bone tools, pottery and basket ware, rafts, dug out canoes, warfare, domestic animals
Neolithic era
“new stone” era
Neolithic people studied the natural world to increase their understanding of the spiritual world.
Growing wealth and power led to suspicion, envy, and sometimes warfare among civilizations.
Neolithic Revolution
“To ensure a more reliable food source, many societies adopted agriculture and pastoralism as their primary economies” known as Neolithic revolution
herding societies
Migrated seasonally to provide their animals with fresh grazing and fodder
· It left these societies at an economical disadvantage in comparison to agricultural and agricultural-pastoral societies
· Not many became advanced Civs
· Those that did, only did so after only after adopting agriculture (like the Hebrews)
Çatal Hüyük
· Located in Southwest Asia
· Modern day Turkey
· Constructed as a fortress with no streets and no ground level entrances
o Inhabitants used their rooftops to move around the city and ladders to descend into living quarters
· Wealthy agricultural town with a thriving obsidian trade
· Some homes have artwork or novelty items that serve no functional purpose but to showcase owner’s ability to own them
· Religious shrines were one for every two houses
o Had powerful figurines, such as bulls and leopards and various gods and goddesses
o Many of these figurines were monumentally fat, pregnant women who could only symbolize fertility goddesses
o PARTICULAR INTEREST IN THE CYCLE OF LIFE, DEATH AND RENEWED LIFE
Bronze Age
· 4000-3000 BCE, metallurgy breakthrough in southwest Asia and china (almost simultaneously). Artisans could now make bronze
o By mixing copper and tin
· Spread quickly
· Brought stone age to an end
· Helped human kind until 1200 BCE, when iron made development and rendered bronze obsolete
King Menes
· King who united upper and lower Egypt
· Menes began the first dynasty
· The Early Dynastic era
· Followed by the old kingdom
· Then the 1st intermediate Period
· Then the Middle Kingdom
· Then 2nd intermediate Period
· Then invaded by Hyksos
· Then the New Kingdom
Epic of Gilgamesh
· One of the first written literature
· Not entirely fictional, but fantastical
· Tells adventures of a man named Gilgamesh
o In real life, name was Bilgames
o Came from part of Sumeria called Uruk
o Military man, and leader
o His life became mythical because of his prowess in battle
· In poem, Gil, is touched by the gods
o Starts out as a flawed individual and is tough on his ppl
o His ppl pray for divine intervention and it comes in the form of ENDIKU
§ Who is sent to battle him. Gilgamesh wins and becomes best friends with ENDIKU
§ They get on the wrong side of a goddess and Endiku gives up his life and
§ Shows heavenly afterlife and describes it before departing to his death
Mandate of Heaven
• The principle of divine power they believed was invested in their monarch
• Should the monarch behave badly or govern poorly, this could be “disavowed” and bestowed upon a more fitting ruler
Book of Songs
• Exemplifies the use of verse to convey ideas in the ancient Chinese culture
veneration of ancestors
• “If people did not respect or care for their ancestors (weather dead or alive), it was believed that they would fail or run into desperate trouble. Reinforcing the patriarchal nature of Chinese society, the oldest man in each family assumed control over decision-making”