Humanities Chapter 4
What were some Roman contributions to western civilization?
alphabet, division of the year into twelve months( calendar), Christian church, democratic republic, and a legal system
What did the Romans value more: good government and military prowess, or cultural and artistic achievements?
good government and military prowess
What are the two main periods of Roman history called?
Roman Republic (509 to 31 B.C.E) and Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. to C.E. 476)
What people occupied Rome from 616 to 510 B.C.E.?
What is the name for the part of Italy ruled by these people?
In what ways did the Etruscans help Rome rise to power?
Rome was transformed into city with a working infrastructure and a thriving cultural center which had contact with other Italian cities
What event marks the beginning of the history of the Roman Republic?
Romans expelled the Etruscans from Roman territories
What Roman class was represented in the Senate?
Roman aristocracy (the patricians)
What was the name of the large open space in the center of Rome used for meetings of the Senate and the assemblies of the people?
What was the significance of the passage of Hortesian Law? How did this influence the balance of power in the Republic?
redistribution of power led to increasing tensions between the patrician and plebian, which became further strained with the rise of a strong plebian middle class
What territories did the Roman expansion acquire?
seizure of Carthage from the Phoenicians and their territories in North Africa, Spain and Sicily, all the territories surrounding the Mediterranean, including Greece, Asia Minor and the Middle East
What was the impact of this expansion on the state and the colonies?
stretched the administrative capabilities both within Rome and in its outer territories
What events in the last hundred years of the Roman Republic would cause many Romans to welcome the rule of an emperor such as Augustus?
cycle of revolts and power struggles ending in violence
What were the two principal schools of philosophy in Rome?
Epicureanism and Stoicism, both had origins in Greece
According to Epicurus, why should humans be able to live free from superstitious fear of the unknown and not have to fear the threat of divine retribution?
gods play no part in human affairs or earthly events and thus humans should live free
What Greco-Roman philosophy is associated with Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius?
What was the subject of the Ius Civile of Julius Caesar?
created a single unified code of Roman civil law
How does Sulla’s Sanctuary of Fortuna in Palestrina demonstrate Roman values?
testimony to the Roman regard for symmetry and grandeur as well as their strong identification with the Greeks
What characteristics of earlier styles did Roman sculptors build upon?
both Greek and Etruscan aesthetic elements
What new elements are seen in Roman sculpture?
portraiture, revealing the personality through subtle details in the features of their subjects
What political events characterized the last century of the Roman Republic (133 B.C.E. to 31 B.C.E.)?
rife with power struggles, lack of political stability, strains due to widespread Roman expansion into other territories
What is the composition of cement and concrete?
ground limestone, water, and volcanic ash
How did concrete influenced Roman architecture?
bigger buildings that lasted longer
What is the basic teachings of Epicureanism?
the way to a happy life is pleasure, gods are busy and aren’t involved with us
What is the basic teachings of Stoicism?
once you ignore negativity it will go away
What are Caesar’s contributions to literature?
What are Caesar’s contributions to law?
reworked legal system and created jus civile: make things fair, practical and flexible
What are Caesar’s contributions to Roman culture?
Who is Julius Caesar?
dictator of Roman Republic for 5 years
What are Roman baths?
3 different pools, men and women didn’t bathe together, plunge pool is where they dive in to cool off
What are Roman inventions in music and visual art?
tuba and water orgid