Impact of Social Media

A Media Research On Impact of social media, texting and other technologies on interpersonal communication. Submitted as a part of Media Research MJMC- 2011-2013 [pic] Submitted by: Sakshi Choudhary Prerna Wadhwa Adittya Kaul Chitra Singh Megha Sharma Zosang Pachuau Anumika Bahukhandi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The successful completion of this file marks the beginning of a learning experience on such an interesting topic. It would be worthwhile to mention the contributions made by the people around me leading to the completion of this practical file.

We are deeply indebted to Ms, Manu Sharma for giving me kind and valuable guidance throughout the course of this study. It was her constant and catalytic actuation that led to the successful completion of this practical file. Without her untiring efforts and encouragement, this file could not have taken its present shape. We would also like to thank to all other faculty members who provided constant support and encouragement, during the project. Sakshi Choudhary Prerna Wadhwa Adittya Kaul Chitra Singh Megha Sharma Zosang Pachuau Anumika Bahukhandi TITLE

Impact of social media, texting and other technologies on interpersonal communication INTRODUCTION Social networking media, texting and other technologies have crept into our lives like no other technology revolution in the recent past. The social media revolution has completely transformed how we used to live our lives. In this context, we felt it would be interesting to understand the impact of social media on three major facets of human existence: The psychological impact Revolutionary impact and The social impact The psychological impact of social media on individuals is immense.

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On a personal level, I have known people who have been online on Facebook for ages without even signing out. There comes a point, after the initial connect with old friends, where you would be idling your time on Facebook doing literally nothing for a long time. This idling time makes you lost and completely distracted from what you had initially intended to do. From 10 mins of Facebook, it would have become 2 hours of Facebook at a stretch. So this addiction to social networking sites makes one even unaware of the real time zones, creating a negative impact on people’s mindsets.

This addiction to stay connected and noticed makes one prioritize these small things over many more important activities. Revolutionary Impact: The biggest power of the social medium is the ability to mobilize support for social causes in a very short span of time. The Arab Spring is a point in case for the biggest achievement of the social medium and it also reflected some of its own shortcomings. The advent of the Arab Spring would not have been possible if not for the social media. Both Twitter and Facebook were extensively used to galvanize support to shake the dictator regime and remove it from office.

The Tahirir Square uprising symbolized the potential of social media to trigger and create change in a nation’s prospects. However, it also has showed some of the shortcomings of the medium itself. Even though the social media was able to assist the revolution, it needed people on the ground to sustain it and implement the changes. Almost after a year, they have had their President elected and ironically it is a leader from the radical Muslim Brotherhood. Social media could not help in implementing change on the ground because its not accountable and its virtual in nature.

This entire episode shows the impact power of social media and also shows that social media can trigger and support movements but the success of such movements depends much upon the core issues raised on the ground. One of the biggest successes of the social media revolution is the amount of fairness that intrinsically the social networking sites have especially Twitter. There is such an open platform for the common citizen to interact and evolve; it shapes many people’s identities and ideologies. Being an open and unbiased medium, it is actually the world’s most efficient democracy in its truest sense.

In addition, it helps to provide so much information that it enriches people with loads of information. Information is indeed wealth and this medium provides so much for it. Ironically, this extensive outpouring of information leads to one of the common issues that social media in general faces. Social Impact: Having an opinion on any issue is a right for any individual, there is no doubt it. However, the power of social media is such that it influences people’s opinions very fast. It also leads to opinion makers who make short sighted comments that might be just fitting for a 140 letter character.

There is a certain level of irresponsibility within certain sets of people that leads to this discussion being only a one way street. One way abuse or giving opinions without responsibility makes the social media, at times, an ocean which has varied levels of depth. While it is a legitimate right for anyone to have their view, it needs to be with decorum that befits educated individuals. Amidst all these various impacts of the medium, one gets the impression that social media has blatantly obvious positives and some surreal negatives that get underplayed very often.

Since everyone brags about the positives, the negative impacts at every stage of the assessment need to be also taken into account. It liberates the common man to have his voice heard in an open platform and helps to connect people across generations. In this process, it also provides him an additional freedom for individuals to air their views on issues. However, this excessive overflow of information and connections can also have a detrimental effect on the personal lives and attitude of individuals if it is not handled in a mature manner.

The balance needs to be the key, with regards to the virtual life and the real life, only this balance and a matured democratic mindset can make the social media experience a worthwhile one. Modern conveniences such as using cell phones and the creation of social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Twitter) for interaction have shown a variety of influences in the research. Within the social networking spectrum exists the activities of instant messaging (IMing), texting, blogging, bulletin boards, and posting (comments, status updates, and videos).

Greenfield and Yan use the “Effects Model” to explain the shift from seeing the Internet as doing something to adolescents to an outlook that consists of adolescents taking an active role in co-constructing their own environments. As with any object, the responsibility falls upon the internet user or social networker as to the purpose of engaging in the activity and what is hoped to be accomplished. However, technological side effects may not always be apparent to the individual user and, combined with millions of other users, may have large-scale implications.

Therefore, each participant has a dual role—as an individual who may be affected by the social environment and as a participant who is interacting with others and co-constructing the same environment. Given that communication plays a central role in personal relationships and that relationships are assessed by the communication skills of others (Burleson, 2003), impairment in the ability to effectively communicate may hinder successful relational development in young adults.

This can potentially impact an array of life areas such as family relationships, socialization, school performance, and employment. Further, the failure of young people to effectively resolve conflicts in person can jeopardize safety and may lead to chronic acts of 4 violence that include verbal threats, pushing, grabbing, punching, and fighting. Thus, the lack of conflict resolution skills may lead to the use of human services and involvement in the legal system, requiring the need to access limited financial resources, and also the risk of out-of-home placement.

Despite the potential benefits for adolescents who engage in the various types of social networking, such as the sense of being understood and supported by peers the research is showing that the excess use of this technology may underhandedly inhibit proper interpersonal skill development. Due to the nature of the social work profession and its efforts to enhance the lives of youth and plan for their successful transition into adulthood, further examination of the impact of social networking on adolescents is justified.

Therefore, it is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of social networking on the skills of communication and conflict resolution within the young adult population. Benefits and Concerns of Social Networking Different theories have surfaced regarding the impact of social networking. It has been found that participation in social network sites provides a number of potential benefits for adolescents. It provides a virtual place to spend time and share thoughts and objects with personal meaning, such as pictures and stories, and remain closely connected with friends regardless of geographic distance.

Also, it is believed that individuals may feel empowered when using social networking to establish relationships that provide information, mutual assistance, and support. Finally, it was found that teens with difficulties may use online relationships as temporary bridges that bring them into safe and comfortable face-to face relationships. All of these mentioned benefits to participants, especially adolescents who are attempting to practice social skills and explore who they are as individuals, add to the justification of including social networking into the current developmental perspective.

Despite the potential advantages of social networking, there are a number of concerns. A well-known study conducted by Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukophadhyay and Scherlis (1998) was one of the first to examine the relationship between Internet use and the aspects of social involvement and psychological well-being. The HomeNet field trial followed 93 families in their first 12-18 months of being online. A total of 256 people took part in the study. It was hypothesized that the users would increase their sense of social support and feel less lonely, be less affected by stress, and have improved mental health.

However, the results of the study showed the opposite. Associations were found between increased Internet use and decreased social involvement, feeling more lonely, and an increase in depressive symptoms. Another result was that higher Internet use was related to a decrease in communication among family members. The results of the original study were criticized and caused much controversy, prompting a second study. The follow-up study found varying results that contradicted the results of the first study in all areas except life stress.

Another consequence of social networking that has been addressed in the research is the issue of cyber bullying. Much data exists regarding the negative aspects of social networking and the incidence of cyber bullying and victimization among users. Traditionally, bullying has taken place during face-to-face interaction. However, advances in technology have opened up new ways for this to occur over electronics, from texting on cell phones to the posting of comments or videos on websites. Regarding text bullying, the prevalence of its occurrence ranges from 15-32% .

In nationally representative surveys of 10-17 year-olds, it was found that twice as many youth reported they were victims of online harassment in 2005 as compared to data from 2000. The issue of cyber abuse (bullying, unwanted sexual advances, and stalking) should be taken very seriously due to the detrimental effects on victims, which include feelings of depression, guilt, shame, as well as self-harm and withdrawing from family and friends. Using a phenomenological approach, an analysis of anonymous posts by adolescents revealed a high incidence of cyber bullying from both real-life acquaintances and those who were met online.

In another study, it was found that students who were text bullied were significantly more likely to feel unsafe at school than those students who had not been text bullied. Whether due to low self-esteem or poor social 11 skills, adolescents who turn to online relationships because of feelings of isolation by peers may find that online relationships are filled with complications. It is within these relationships that adolescents may be victimized by cyber bullying, unwanted sexual advances, and even cyber stalking. MEDIUMS

Internet surfing The term “Internet surfing” appeared after the creation of the personal computer and the Internet and is seen as an extension of “channel surfing”, where viewers randomly change channels on a television using a remote control with no real physical effort. Internet surfing is activity described as spending time visiting either random or targeted websites on the Internet for non-communication purposes. Users can view websites to gather information, play interactive games, shop, and view photos and movies.

Surfing the Internet can be addictive in nature because individuals receive short-term gratification every time they go online, making it very desirable to continue to go online to receive this gratification. Studies have demonstrated that excessive Internet surfing may increase depression and social anxiety. Therefore, individuals who struggle with Internet surfing and also participate in social networking as a means of meeting their social needs may be at risk for a significant decline in communication and conflict resolution skills due to their isolative behaviors.

Moreover, it was found out adolescents with low perceived friendship quality reported significantly higher depression and social anxiety. Since excessive computer use can inhibit exploring one’s actual environment and impact the growth of friendships, this is of major concern. Instant messaging. In contrast to surfing, instant messaging (IM-ing) consists of sending real-time online computer messages to another user in a mutually established conversation. Researchers found that IM-ing is the most popular method of communication among teens who go online, with 75% using this medium and 48% doing so at least once a day.

This format is typically private and can be an opportunity for adolescents to practice and develop social skills. However, a recent longitudinal study showed that IM-ing6 predicted more depression among adolescents over a six month period. The effects of Internet surfing and IM-ing on internalizing problems may be closely related due to the finding that adolescents who spend more time IM-ing also spend more time surfing. Texting The short messaging service (SMS), more commonly known as “texting”, is the cellular phone version of IM-ing and also results in virtually instant messages between the sender and receiver.

Cell phones have been engineered over the past years to accommodate the demand of texting, such as offering a full QWERTY keyboard, and many cell phone carriers offer plans that contain unlimited texting. A survey conducted on 2,277 American adults by the Pew Research Center found that 18-24 year olds sent or received an average of 109. 5 text messages per day, which works out to be more than 3,200 text messages per month. In a European study of 635 participants ages 16-55 years old who visited a website and completed an online questionnaire, 48. % reported preferring to use their cell phones for texting over voice calls and 26. 1% reported texting too much This study also measured levels of loneliness, expressive control, interaction anxiousness, and conversational involvement. Two significant findings were that 61% of the participants stated they say things in text that they would not feel comfortable saying face-to-face and 64% stated they feel they are able to express their true feelings best in text messages rather than in face-to-face interactions or voice calls. Modern conveniences such as using cell phones and the creation f social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Twitter) for interaction have shown a variety of influences in the research. Within the social networking spectrum exists the activities of instant messaging (IMing), texting, blogging, bulletin boards, and posting (comments, status updates, and videos). Greenfield and Yan use the “Effects Model” to explain the shift from seeing the Internet as doing something to adolescents to an outlook that consists of adolescents taking an active role in co-constructing their own environments.

As with any object, the responsibility falls upon the internet user or social networker as to the purpose of engaging in the activity and what is hoped to be accomplished. However, technological side effects may not always be apparent to the individual user and, combined with millions of other users, may have large-scale implications. Therefore, each participant has a dual role—as an individual who may be affected by the social environment and as a participant who is interacting with others and co-constructing the same environment.

Given that communication plays a central role in personal relationships and that relationships are assessed by the communication skills of others (Burleson, 2003), impairment in the ability to effectively communicate may hinder successful relational development in young adults. This can potentially impact an array of life areas such as family relationships, socialization, school performance, and employment. Further, the failure of young people to effectively resolve conflicts in person can jeopardize safety and may lead to chronic acts of 4 violence that include verbal threats, pushing, grabbing, punching, and fighting.

Thus, the lack of conflict resolution skills may lead to the use of human services and involvement in the legal system, requiring the need to access limited financial resources, and also the risk of out-of-home placement. Despite the potential benefits for adolescents who engage in the various types of social networking, such as the sense of being understood and supported by peers the research is showing that the excess use of this technology may underhandedly inhibit proper interpersonal skill development.

Due to the nature of the social work profession and its efforts to enhance the lives of youth and plan for their successful transition into adulthood, further examination of the impact of social networking on adolescents is justified. Therefore, it is the purpose of this study to examine the impact of social networking on the skills of communication and conflict resolution within the young adult population. Statement of problem This project focuses on evaluating the impact of social media, texting and other technologies on interpersonal communication.

It will help us in knowing the positive and negative impact of these respective mediums interpersonal communication. Nowadays people spend more than 50% of their time on socializing or texting. Some of the most popular Social Medias are facebook, twitter, blogs, BBM, whatsapp texting. The popularity of these social mediums has not only captured the interest of people but has also influenced their interpersonal communication strongly. The main agenda behind this research is to find out the impact of these mediums on the interpersonal communication of people. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Research can be defined as the search for knowledge or as any systematic investigation to establish facts. The primary purpose for research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. HYPOTHESIS An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete terms what you expect will happen in your study. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is a direct relationship between Impact of social media, texting and other technologies on interpersonal communication.

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS: There is no conclusive relationship between Impact of social media, texting and other technologies on interpersonal communication Literature Review According to Vitak (2008), there are some reasons why an individual uses asocial networking site. The first reason is for them to meet strangers and become friends with them. This type of relationship is what we call a weak interpersonal relationship. The majority of respondents of her research paper (57%) said they were initially introduced to those “friends” through mutual friends, which increases the likelihood of such relationships developing into strong ties.

On the other hand, responses to a separate question overwhelmingly support the hypothesis. While asignificant portion or respondents said they have at least a few online-online friends,85% said they do not communicate with the majority of their online-only friends, and just one respondent said that he/she considered those friends as a strong tie. Through social networking sites like facebook, the user tends to maintain his weak interpersonal relationship with his online friends because of an easy communication.

He can use private messaging, chat rooms, and other method of communicating provided by the website. On the other hand, a strong interpersonal relationship with his offline friends needs time and effort to be maintained. Distance between two users that can change an offline relationship into online relationship is also a reason why an individual uses SNSs. Nearly two-thirds (65%) of respondents said the majority of their friends have a Facebook account, which suggests that many students use the site to stay in touch with their offline friends.

Keeping in touch with friends remains the primary reason for site usage across both years in school and gender. Furthermore, approximately one-third (31%) of respondents with friends who do not have a Facebook account say they would be closer to those friends if they were on the site, and 87% of respondents said they had never experienced negative consequences in their offline relationships due to content in their Facebook profiles, which suggests that most respondents benefit from using the site.

With the use of private messaging and chat rooms of this site, students can communicate and maintain a healthy relationship with their friends from far places with ease that takes only a few seconds to complete it. Social Networking Sites also have negative effects in offline relationships. Something’s found in the site can lead to misinterpretation for some people. Because of online messaging or comments that are visible to everyone in the friends list of a user, an offline relationship can be affected or destroyed due to fights that will happen.

For example, a jealous boyfriend saw a comment from a mysterious boy posted on the wall of his girlfriend that says intimate words, because of this, the relationship between the girl and his boyfriend can be broken. Another negative effect is, because of posting comments on the wall of a user became much easier, it will also be effortless for other people to spread rumors and gossips that can destroy a life of an individual. As a larger percentage of communication moves into the digital arena, we will see a general weakening of ties between people.

This weakening will be less pervasive among a person’s closest circle of friends and more obvious among lesser friends, as digital communication will become the primary mode of communication in theserelationships http://www. scribd. com/doc/27327211/The-Influence-of-Social-Networking-Sites-to-Interpersonal-Relationships-of-the-Students-of-Rogationist-College-High-School-Department-S-Y-2009-2010 Social Networking and Interpersonal Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills among College Freshmen By John J. Drussell Social Networking Activities

Advancements in technology have resulted in people being able to access a wealth of information and participate in virtual opportunities not previously available. Through the tools of computers and cell phones, society has moved from engaging in face-to-face interaction while performing these activities to endeavors that do not require in-person interaction with others. The devices have therefore become the actual mediators between people and knowledge or entertainment. Within recent years, technology has also made available different avenues for communicating.

The capabilities of computers and cell phones have allowed users to develop means to participate in the world of social networking, now making the device the mediator of communication between individuals. 5 Internet surfing. The term “Internet surfing” appeared after the creation of the personal computer and the Internet and is seen as an extension of “channel surfing”, where viewers randomly change channels on a television using a remote control with no real physical effort. Internet surfing is activity described as spending time visiting either random or targeted websites on the Internet for non-communication purposes.

Users can view websites to gather information, play interactive games, shop, and view photos and movies. Surfing the Internet can be addictive in nature because individuals receive short-term gratification every time they go online, making it very desirable to continue to go online to receive this gratification (Selfout, Branje, Delsing, Bogt & Meeus, 2009; Hall & Parsons, 2001). Studies have demonstrated that excessive Internet surfing may increase depression and social anxiety (Selfout et al. , 2009; Morgan & Cotton, 2003).

Therefore, individuals who struggle with Internet surfing and also participate in social networking as a means of meeting their social needs may be at risk for a significant decline in communication and conflict resolution skills due to their isolative behaviors. Moreover, Selfout et al. , (2009) found that adolescents with low perceived friendship quality reported significantly higher depression and social anxiety. Since excessive computer use can inhibit exploring one’s actual environment and impact the growth of friendships, this is of major concern.

Instant messaging. In contrast to surfing, instant messaging (IM-ing) consists of sending real-time online computer messages to another user in a mutually established conversation. Researchers found that IM-ing is the most popular method of communication among teens who go online, with 75% using this medium and 48% doing so at least once a day (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Lenhart et al. , 2005). This format is typically private and can be an opportunity for adolescents to practice and develop social skills (Selfout et al. 2009; Morgan & Cotton, 2003; Valkenburg & Peter, 2007). However, a recent longitudinal study showed that IM-ing6 predicted more depression among adolescents over a six month period (Selfout et al. , 2009; Van den Eijnden, Meerkerk, Vermulst, Spijkerman & Engels, 2008). The effects of Internet surfing and IM-ing on internalizing problems may be closely related due to the finding that adolescents who spend more time IM-ing also spend more time surfing (Selfout et al. , 2008; Subrahmanyam, Greenfield, Kraut, & Gross, 2001). Texting.

The short messaging service (SMS), more commonly known as “texting”, is the cellular phone version of IM-ing and also results in virtually instant messages between the sender and receiver. Cell phones have been engineered over the past years to accommodate the demand of texting, such as offering a full QWERTY keyboard, and many cell phone carriers offer plans that contain unlimited texting. In fact, Crabtree et al. (2003) expected SMS to dominate mobile messaging in regards to both traffic volume and revenue well into the last quarter of the decade (Reid & Reid, 2007).

In a Norwegian study of 19-21 year olds, participants sent an average of six texts per day in 2001. When the same age group was measured again in 2007, this number tripled to an average of 18 text messages sent per day (Ling, 2010). A survey conducted on 2,277 American adults by the Pew Research Center found that 18-24 year olds sent or received an average of 109. 5 text messages per day, which works out to be more than 3,200 text messages per month (Smith, 2011). In a European study of 635 participants ages 16-55 years old who visited a website and completed an online questionnaire, 48. % reported preferring to use their cell phones for texting over voice calls and 26. 1% reported texting too much This study also measured levels of loneliness, expressive control, interaction anxiousness, and conversational involvement. Two significant findings were that 61% of the participants stated they say things in text that they would not feel comfortable saying face-to-face and 64% stated they feel they are able to express 7 their true feelings best in text messages rather than in face-to-face interactions or voice calls (Reid & Reid, 2007). Quality of Social Networking Relationships

Personal interaction is and has always been an important function of the human experience. Prior to the technological revolution and creation of personal computers and cell phones, relationships were typically developed and maintained by means of face-to-face interaction and verbal or written communication. With the development of the Information Age, characterized by the ability for people to freely and conveniently access and exchange information through technology, the way in which our society interacts with one another has continued to transform.

Technological Determinism Theory attempts to help explain how changes in methods of communication through advancements in technology impacts general society. According to this theory, media technology shapes how individuals in a society feel, act, and think as well as influences how society functions as they move from one technological age to another. In other words, people learn how to think and feel the way they do based upon the messages they receive through the current technology.

This theory supports the belief that “the medium is the message” and that people adapt accordingly and will utilize the means in which society as a whole is using to communicate. As the medium changes, so does society’s way of communicating. If the medium is impersonal, then the message itself is also impersonal (Mcluhan, 1962). With the creation of the virtual world, individuals have the opportunity to interact with others, both known and unknown, in a variety of ways. With the change in nature of these relationships, it has been of interest to gauge the perceived quality of online relationships.

Because Internet sites, such as America Online (AOL) and Facebook, allow groups of users to 8 connect with other groups, users engage in group forming activities that are comparable to faceto-face groups (Giffords, 2009). According to Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe (2007), social networking sites on the Internet may be used to strengthen relationships that already exist, therefore acting as a bridge between the online and offline worlds (Perez-Latte, Portilla, & Blanco, 2011).

A study by the USC-Annenberg Digital Future Project (2006) on Internet usage found that 43% of Internet users who are part of online communities feel as strongly about their online communities as they do about their real-life communities (Giffords, 2009). In another research study among adolescents, a prominent finding was that participants who had developed friendships and relationships online consider them to be as real as relationships in their actual lives. Further, these online friendships were described as being ong-term, trusting, and very meaningful (Mishna et al. , 2009). Because of potential attached meaning to these virtual relationships and the possibilities that human interaction may become volatile and unpredictable, it is of explicit interest to investigate how users, specifically adolescents and young adults, manage to communicate and resolve conflicts within these communities. Therefore, more research is needed in this area. Benefits and Concerns of Social Networking Different theories have surfaced regarding the impact of social networking.

It has been found that participation in social network sites provides a number of potential benefits for adolescents. Cited by Hinduja and Patchin (2008), it was found that benefits of online interaction include that it provides a means in which to learn the ability to relate to others, tolerate differing viewpoints, express thoughts and feelings in a healthy way, and practice critical thinking skills (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Berson, Berson, & Ferron, 2002), In addition, Clavert (2002) states 9 that communicating with others on the Internet is an opportunity to explore self-identity and enhance self-discovery.

Another perceived benefit is that the Internet increases the possibility to contact peers, thus enhancing self-esteem and feelings of well-being (Selfhout et al. , 2008; Morgan & Cotton, 2003; Valkenberg & Peter, 2007). Further in regards to social networking, the Internet provides a virtual place to spend time and share thoughts and objects with personal meaning, such as pictures and stories, and remain closely connected with friends regardless of geographic distance (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008; Boyd, 2006).

Also, it is believed that individuals may feel empowered when using social networking to establish relationships that provide information, mutual assistance, and support (Giffords, 20069). Finally, it was found that teens with difficulties may use online relationships as temporary bridges that bring them into safe and comfortable face-toface relationships (Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2003).

All of these mentioned benefits to participants, especially adolescents who are attempting to practice social skills and explore who they are as individuals, add to the justification of including social networking into the current developmental perspective. Despite the potential advantages of social networking, there are a number of concerns. A well-known study conducted by Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukophadhyay and Scherlis (1998) was one of the first to examine the relationship between Internet use and the aspects of social involvement and psychological well-being.

The HomeNet field trial followed 93 families in their first 12-18 months of being online. A total of 256 people took part in the study. It was hypothesized that the users would increase their sense of social support and feel less lonely, be less affected by stress, and have improved mental health. However, the results of the study showed the opposite. Associations were found between increased Internet use and 10 decreased social involvement, feeling more lonely, and an increase in depressive symptoms. Another result was that higher Internet use was related to a decrease in communication among family members.

The results of the original study were criticized and caused much controversy, prompting a second study. The follow-up study found varying results that contradicted the results of the first study in all areas except life stress. Another consequence of social networking that has been addressed in the research is the issue of cyber bullying. Much data exists regarding the negative aspects of social networking and the incidence of cyber bullying and victimization among users. Traditionally, bullying has taken place during face-to-face interaction.

However, advances in technology have opened up new ways for this to occur over electronics, from texting on cell phones to the posting of comments or videos on websites (Marsh, McGee, Nada-Raja, & Williams, 2010; Patchin & Hinduja, 2006). Regarding text bullying, the prevalence of its occurrence ranges from 15-32% (Marsh et al. , 2010; Beran & Li, 2005). In nationally representative surveys of 10-17 year-olds, it was found that twice as many youth reported they were victims of online harassment in 2005 as compared to data from 2000 (Giffords, 2009; Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2006).

The issue of cyber abuse (bullying, unwanted sexual advances, and stalking) should be taken very seriously due to the detrimental effects on victims, which include feelings of depression, guilt, shame, as well as self-harm and withdrawing from family and friends (Mishna et al. , 2009). Using a phenomenological approach, an analysis of anonymous posts by adolescents revealed a high incidence of cyber bullying from both real-life acquaintances and those who were met online (Mishna et al. , 2009).

In another study, it was found that students who were text bullied were significantly more likely to feel unsafe at school than those students who had not been text bullied (Marsh et al. , 2010). Whether due to low self-esteem or poor social 11 skills, adolescents who turn to online relationships because of feelings of isolation by peers may find that online relationships are filled with complications (Wolak et al. , 2003; Egan, 2000). It is within these relationships that adolescents may be victimized by cyber bullying, unwanted sexual advances, and even cyber stalking.

Communication and Conflict Resolution Skills Successfully maneuvering through life requires attaining a set of skills, for example the ability to communicate with others and work through conflicts, that are acquired through different avenues during a person’s developmental journey. From the early days of mainframe computers to the present, computers have been mostly used for interpersonal communication (Sproull & Kiesler, 1991). In fact in terms of meaning, communication is the most important use of the Internet for adolescents (Greenfield & Yan, 2006; Gross, 2004).

Regarding conflict resolution, Chung and Asher (1996) and Rose and Asher (1999) have argued that responses to hypothetical situations involving conflict are similar to responses observed during real-life conflict (Johnson, LaVoie, Eggenburg, Mahoney, & Pounds, 2001). This highlights the value in presenting opportunities to practice these skills to prepare for real life situations. However, these hypothetical situations were presented face-to-face to a group by a facilitator and did not include a technological or social networking component.

With an overwhelming trend among adolescents and young adults toward the reliance on technology for communication, it is speculated that the decline of face-to-face interaction will result in decreased ability to handle real-life conflicts. In analyzing data from a study of adolescents with close online relationships, it showed that a disproportionate number reported high amounts of conflict with their parents as well as low levels of communication with their parents (Wolak et al. , 2003). In another study, dolescents who engaged in online 12 communication and felt frightened or that they were in significant trouble did not reach out and communicate with their parents (Mishna et al. , 2009). Empirical data in social work literature, as well as other professional journals, on the effects of school-based conflict resolution programs have been positive, suggesting that teaching conflict resolution skills to students increase their knowledge of how to resolve conflict using non-violent means (Woody, 2001; Johnson, Johnson, Dudley, Mitchell, & Fredrickson, 1997).

Although some research exists that examines the activities of social networking and the potential effects, both positive and negative, on its users, there is a gap in the empirical literature. Social networking relies on technology and is conducted over specific devices with no presence of face-to-face interaction, which results in an inability to access interpersonal behavior and signals to facilitate communication. Adding the possibility that relationships can become volatile and unpredictable, no current research addresses how social networking affects the ability for users to resolve conflicts in their daily lives.

A concerted effort to focus on how social networking impacts the ability to perform the functions of communication and conflict resolution in real-life relationships would be highly beneficial. The available research did not speak to these particular issues, hence the impetus for this quantitative study. Therefore, this researcher proposes the following research question: What is the impact of social networking on interpersonal communication and conflict resolution skills? http://sophia. stkate. edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1021&context=msw_papers OBJECTIVE to analysis Impact of social media, texting and other technologies on interpersonal communication ? to understand the impact of social media on three major facets of human existence o The psychological impact o Revolutionary impact and o The social impact. ? To understand Benefits and Concerns of Social Networking RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PROCESS The research is basically done with the help of ‘Survey’, one of the most important research instruments. A Questionnaire was prepared in order to conduct the survey. Specific and selective questions were added in it accordingly. open ended and 5 close ended questions were added. Sample size was decided and the area of research was decided. How sampling will be done, how it will be divided and what will be the sample size, everything was kept in mind before filling the questionnaires. After preparing the questionnaires, they were sent out to be filled. People filled it by expressing their views and ideas. After getting that questionnaires filled, we went through every questionnaire. And then data and analysis was done. SAMPLING OF RESPONDENT Survey sampling In statistics, survey sampling is random selection of a sample from a finite population.

It is an important part of planning statistical research and design of experiments. Sophisticated sampling techniques that are both economical and scientifically reliable have been developed. Random Sampling Sampling can be defined as a part of population. Thus random sampling may be defined as the selection of a portion from the whole population in which each elements of the population has an equal chance of being selected. A more please definition is that each element in the population has a non-zero and known probability of selection a randomly drawn sample is an unbiased sample.

In this research survey 50 people were surveyed at random to get the relevant information. INSTRUMENT USED A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data.

However, such standardized answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. LIMITATIONS ? It was hard to catch hold of people who could actually take out sometime to fill the questionnaire ? Many of the respondents might not have given the correct information and have filled the questionnaire just for the sake of it. DATA ANALYSIS According to the research done, some of the points and facts that came in light will be provided in data tabulation.

The survey was a great help for finding and discovering facts which are as follows: Q. 1 Do you have access to internet? Yes No Almost all the people have access to internet Q. 2 What social networking mediums do you use for communication? According to my research 10% of the people use social networking sites, 60% use instant messaging and 30% use messages or texting Q. 3 what is the  most preferred medium that you use? <> <> <> <> 25% of the people use facebook,30%use BBM, 40% use whatsapp and 5% use other mediums Q. How often do you visit social network websites? 75% of the people said very often they visit the social network websites Q. 5 why do you use social networking sites? 20% of the people use social networking sites for updating photos, status and more, 65% use these sites to socialize, 10% o build professional relations, and 5% to stay in touch with friends Q. 6 how much time do you spend on these networking mediums? 10% of the people spend 1 hour on these mediums, 15% spend 2 hours, 70% spend 3-5 hours and 5% spend all day long.

Q. 7 How many text messages do you send in a day? <> <> 80% of the people send 10 or even less than 10 text messages in a day Q. 8 Do you think there is any change in your way of communication with friends? If yes, what are the changes you feel? <> <> 75% of the people say that they feel that there is a change in their way of communication with friends. Varied answers were there for this question Q. 9 Do you think people are losing the warmth of relations and becoming formal because of sending messages through these mediums? <> <> 0% of the people said yes that they think people are losing the warmth of relations and becoming formal because of sending messages through these mediums and 60% said no they don’t feel it that way Q. 10. Does it exempt them from socialising outside? <> <> 40% of the people said that they do exemt from socialising outside and 60% said that they don’t . QUESTIONNAIRE NAME: AGE: GENDER: Q. 1 Do you have access to internet? Yes No Q. 2 What social networking mediums do you use for communication? Q. 3 what is the  most preferred medium that you use? <> <> <> <>

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