ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MSC 42102 Individual Processes Attitude and Values Organizational Behavior Submitted To :Submitted By : Dr. Pramod PathakAjit Vinod Kujur Manwendra Prakash Anshul Rawat Prateek Purty Prateeksha Maurya Individual Processes Individual behavior is how we as individuals behave ourselves. This behavior is subject to many personal traits as well as habits, values, perceptions, and other qualities and features. People make assumptions about those whom they work with, supervise, or spend time with in leisure activities.
To some extent, these assumptions influence the person’s behavior towards others. Effective employees understand what affects their own behavior before attempting to influence the behavior of others. Individual behavior is the foundation of organizational performance. Understanding individual behavior, therefore, is crucial for effective management. Each person is a physiological system composed of a number of subsystems- attitudes, perception, personality, needs, values and feelings. Attitude A tendency to feel & behave in a particular way towards objects, people or events. Characteristics Remain unchanged for a long period – unless influenced by external forces * Evaluative statements – favorable or unfavorable Components * Cognitive – the opinions, values or beliefs of an individual * Affective – the feelings of a person towards something * Behavioral – the intention of a person to behave in a particular way Sources of Attitude * Attitudes are acquired by parents, teachers,& peer group members * Individuals are willing to modify their behavior & shape their attitude – to match with the opinion leader * Attitude can be changed by providing feedback
Types of Attitude * Job satisfaction * The pleasurable or positive emotional state that results when an individual evaluates his job or job experience. Dimensions * It is an emotional response to a job. * The satisfaction that an individual derives from his job depends on the extent to which outcomes meet his expectations. * Job satisfaction reflects other attitudes of employee. * 6 dimensions (P. C. Smith, L. M Kendall, C. L. Hulin) i. e. 1) The work 2) The pay 3) Promotion 4) Opportunity 5) Supervision 6) Co-worker 7) Working conditions Job Involvement * The extent to which person identifies himself psychologically with his job, actively participates in it & considers that his performance in the job contribute to his self worth * Organizational Commitment * An employee’s satisfaction with a particular organization & its goals OC is affected by a number of * Personal variables – employee’s age, attitude towards job. * Organizational variables – job design, leadership style of the superior. John P. Meyer & Natalie J. Allen gave 3 component model i. . * Affective commitment – It is concerned with employee’s emotional attachment & involvement with the organization * Continuance commitment – It is influenced by the costs that could accrue to the employee if he leaves the org * Normative commitment – It refers to the extent to which an employee feels obliged to continue in the organization. Functions of Attitudes * The adjustment function * People modify their attitudes to adjust to their work environment * When fair treatment is given – positive attitude When treatment is not good – negative attitude * Ego-defensive function * Attitudes help employee to defend their self image – when mistake identified – protects their ego * The value expressive function * Values can be expressed through attitudes E. g. if mgr wants employee to work hard – may tell company has a tradition of hard work. * The knowledge function * Attitudes act as a standard of reference which allows people to understand & explain their environment. E. g. Union leader’s attitude towards management – based on past.
Attitudes & Consistency * People may change their attitude – do not contradict their action * If any discrepancy arises, individuals will try to bridge the discrepancy by developing a rational explanation for the discrepancy. Cognitive Dissonance Theory – Leon Festinger (1950s) * Cognitive dissonance – Incompatibility that an individual may perceive between 2 or more of his attitudes or between his behavior and attitude. * Emotional dissonance – Conflict between the emotions an individual experiences & emotions he needs to express
An individual can deal with dissonance either by * Sticking to his attitude * Give up his attitude * Change the attitude Values Values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Values in the Workplace * Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences * Define right or wrong, good or bad * Value system — hierarchy of values Values and Behavior Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs * Decisions and behavior are linked to values when: * Mindful of our values have logical reasons to apply values in that situation * Situation does not interfere Values Congruence * Used where two or more entities have similar value systems * Problems with incongruence * Incompatible decisions * Lower satisfaction/loyalty * Higher stress and turnover Benefits of incongruence * Better decision making (diverse perspectives) * Avoids “corporate cults”
Values across Cultures: Individualism and Collectivism * Degree that people value duty to their group (collectivism) versus independence and person uniqueness (individualism) * Previously considered opposites, but unrelated — i. e. possible to value high individualism and high collectivism Ethical Behavior Ethical Behavior means acting in ways consistent with one’s personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society. Qualities Required for Ethical Decision-making * The competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action. The self-confidence to seek out different opinions about the issue and decide what is right in terms of a situation. * Tough-mindedness – the willingness to make decisions when all that needs to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue has no established, unambiguous solution. Values, Ethics & Ethical Behavior * Value Systems – systems of beliefs that affect what the individual defines as right, good, and fair * Ethics – reflects the way values are acted out * Ethical behavior – actions consistent with one’s values